Presentation on theme: "Title: Civil War: Confederacy & Union. I) The Confederacy (The South) Ironically, as the Southern states fought to maintain the right to govern themselves."— Presentation transcript:
I) The Confederacy (The South) Ironically, as the Southern states fought to maintain the right to govern themselves locally, the Jefferson Davis brought them under greater control than they had ever experienced. When Southerners opposed his moves, he did the following to maintain control: –Declared martial law –Suspended the writ of habeas corpus, a traditional protection against improper imprisonment
Davis took control of the Southern economy, imposing taxes and using the revenues to spur industrial and urban growth. He took control of the railroads and commercial shipping; and he created a large government bureaucracy to oversee economic developments. Davis, in short, forced the South to compensate quickly for what it lost when it cut itself off from Northern commerce.
Davis had some success in modernizing the Southern economy But the Confederacy lagged too far behind in industrialization to catch up to the Union Rapid economic growth, furthermore, brought with it rapid inflation Prices rose so quickly that paychecks and payments for crops became worthless almost as soon as they were made, plunging many Southerners into poverty
In 1862, the Confederacy imposed conscription (a military draft) This required many small farmers and yeomen to serve in the Confederate Army This act caused even greater poverty in the country, as many families could not adequately tend their farms without their men
Confederate conscription also created class conflict. The government allowed the wealthy to hire surrogates to perform military service in their place and exempted anyone who owned more than 20 slaves from military service This was on the grounds that the large plantations these men ran fed the Confederacy and its army In effect, the wealthy did not serve, while the poor had no choice. As a result, class tensions increased, leading ultimately to widespread desertions from the Confederate government and try to carry on as if there was no war Many resisted when asked to feed, clothe, or house passing troops
Life in the Military Conditions were poor, tents were crowded, and the ground muddy or dusty depending on the weather. Camp rations were good, but while on the march soldiers relied on hardtack and coffee. Wartime medicine Disease was responsible for most deaths, and various epidemics swept through the camps. A sanitary commission worked to improve conditions. Camp life Prisoner exchanges ended in 1863, and both sides were guilty of inhumane treatment of prisoners. Prison camps
II) The Union (North) The Northern economy received a boost from the war as the demand for war-related goods, such as uniforms and weapons, spurred manufacturing. The loss of Southern markets harmed the economy at first, but soon the way economy brought about a boom period
Like the South, the North experienced a period of accelerated inflation. However, Northern inflation was nowhere as extreme as its southern counterpart In the North, prices rose between 10 and 20% In the South, the inflation rate was over 300% Workers, worried about job security (in the face of mechanization) and the decreasing value of their wages, formed unions
Businesses, in return, blacklisted union members, forced new employees to sign contracts in which they promised not to join unions, and used violence to break strikes. The Republican Party, then (as now) believing that government should help businesses but also regulate them as little as possible, supported business in its opposition to unions
Women in the Civil War Southern Women Spied for the Confederacy Took over farms, stores, and plantations Worked in the few factories and made ammunition for the troops Formed societies to make bandages, shirts and bedclothes Acted as volunteer nurses before Confederate Congress passed law allowing them to be hired as army nurses Northern Women Stepped into jobs so men could go fight Produced huge amounts of food with the aid of new farm equipment Female teachers went south to educate former slaves after the war Became the first women to hold federal clerical jobs Served in the Union army as nurses and volunteered to work in hospitals
African Americans and the War Slaves performed many non-combat jobs in the Confederate army. Escaped slaves worked for the Union army in various jobs. They formed Union army regiments in segregated units. - Initially used for labor and guard duty. - When allowed into battle they fought heroically. The 54 th Massachusetts Infantry was the most famous unit. 180,000 African Americans served in Union armies. More than 38,00 died serving the Union.
A number of entrepreneurs became extremely wealthy Many began to overcharge the government for services and products Some sold the Union government worthless food and clothing (called shoddy) Government bureaucrats looked the other way (for the price of a bribe) Corruption was fairly widespread, eventually prompting a year-long Congressional investigation
Lincoln, like Davis, oversaw a tremendous increase in the power of the central government during the war. Implemented economic development programs without waiting for Congressional approval Championed numerous government loans and grants to businesses Raise tariffs to protect Union trade Suspended the writ of habeas corpus in the border states
Union draft law allowed the wealthy to hire substitutes or pay a $300 fee— making the war a poor man’s fight. Antidraft riots fueled an existing antiwar movement, called Peace Democrats by supporters, Copperheads by critics.
Attitudes about the war changed with increased casualties –No longer about just saving the Union, the South needed to be punished for the bloodshed of the war. Emancipation Proclamation issued on January 1, 1863 –It freed the slaves in all areas in rebellion against the U.S. –Abolitionists were upset slavery continued in the Union. –Riots broke out with increased competition for jobs in the North. Overseas reaction –The British felt Lincoln should have freed all of the slaves but now that the war’s purpose is to end slavery, Britain sided with the Union. The Emancipation Proclamation