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Body Systems Tissue Types Integumentary System Homeostatic Mechanisms.

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Presentation on theme: "Body Systems Tissue Types Integumentary System Homeostatic Mechanisms."— Presentation transcript:

1 Body Systems Tissue Types Integumentary System Homeostatic Mechanisms

2 Four Major Tissue Types Connective: binds and supports body partsConnective: binds and supports body parts Muscular: allows movementMuscular: allows movement Nervous: receives stimuli and conducts impulsesNervous: receives stimuli and conducts impulses Epithelial: covers body surfaces, lines body cavitiesEpithelial: covers body surfaces, lines body cavities

3 Three Components of Connective Tissue Specialized cells Ground Substance: Non-cellular material separating cells Protein Fibers collagen elastic fiber reticular fiber

4 Loose Fibrous Connective Tissue Contains fibroblast cellsContains fibroblast cells Matrix: ground substance + fibersMatrix: ground substance + fibers Protective covering for muscles, blood vessels, nervesProtective covering for muscles, blood vessels, nerves

5 Dense Fibrous Connective Tissue Collagen fibers packed togetherCollagen fibers packed together FormsForms –Tendons: connect muscles to bone –Ligaments: connect bone to bone

6 Fibrous Connective Tissue: Adipose Tissue nucleus Cells store fatCells store fat Found under skin, around kidneys, heartFound under skin, around kidneys, heart

7 Supportive Connective Tissue: Cartilage Solid, flexible matrixSolid, flexible matrix Cells located in chambers – lacunaeCells located in chambers – lacunae Hyaline cartilage --most common --contains fine collagen fibers --nose, ends of long bones and ribs, walls of respiratory passages Elastic cartilage --elastin fibers --more flexible --outer ear Fibrocartilage --strong collagen fibers --between vertebrae and in knee joint

8 Supportive Connective Tissue: Bone Solid, rigid matrix of calcium salts around collagen fibersSolid, rigid matrix of calcium salts around collagen fibers In compact bone, cells are located in spaces between rings of matrixIn compact bone, cells are located in spaces between rings of matrix Compact bone Spongy bone

9 Fluid Connective Tissue: Blood Liquid matrix = plasmaLiquid matrix = plasma –dissolved substances, eg. gases, ions –suspended substances, eg. proteins Formed elements: cells and cell fragmentsFormed elements: cells and cell fragments –Red blood cells –White blood cells –Platelets Cell fragments that aid in blood clottingCell fragments that aid in blood clotting transport oxygen fight infection

10 Fluid Connective Tissue: Lymph Liquid matrix = lymphatic fluidLiquid matrix = lymphatic fluid Contains white blood cellsContains white blood cells

11 Applying Your Knowledge A.Which type of tissue has a liquid matrix? B.Which type of tissue stores fat? C.Which type of tissue has a solid matrix of calcium salts? 1. Adipose Tissue 2. Blood 3. Bone 4. Dense Fibrous Connective Tissue

12 Muscular Tissue Cells are called muscle fibersCells are called muscle fibers Cells contain protein filaments called actin and myosinCells contain protein filaments called actin and myosin Smooth Muscle Involuntary cell nucleus Cardiac Muscle Involuntary nucleus Skeletal Muscle Voluntary nucleus striation

13 Nervous Tissue Neurons- conduct nerve impulsesNeurons- conduct nerve impulses Neuroglia- support and nourish neuronsNeuroglia- support and nourish neurons Receives signals from other neurons Maintains cell metabolism Conducts signals to next neuron Insulates neuron

14 Classification of Epithelial Tissue Cuboidal: cube-shaped cells Squamous: flattened cells Columnar: elongated cells Simple = one layer Pseudostratified = appears as multiple layers Stratified = multiple layers Pseudostratified Columnar

15 Other Terms Related to Epithelial Tissue Basement Membrane- joins epithelium to underlying connective tissueBasement Membrane- joins epithelium to underlying connective tissue Gland- epithelial tissue that secretes a productGland- epithelial tissue that secretes a product –mucus –hormones

16 Applying Your Knowledge A.Which type of tissue includes cells in a solid matrix, as for cartilage? B.Which type of tissue covers body surfaces? C.Which type of tissue receives and transmits signals? D.Which tissue has cells with actin and myosin filaments? 1. Nervous Tissue 2. Epithelial Tissue 3. Muscular Tissue 4. Connective Tissue

17 Integumentary System: Skin and Accessory Organs Regions of the SkinRegions of the Skin –Epidermis stratified squamous epitheliumstratified squamous epithelium cells become hardened due to keratincells become hardened due to keratin continually replaced from basal layercontinually replaced from basal layer melanocytes give pigmentationmelanocytes give pigmentation

18 Integumentary System: Skin and Accessory Organs Regions of the SkinRegions of the Skin –Dermis dense fibrous connective tissuedense fibrous connective tissue contains collagen and elastic fiberscontains collagen and elastic fibers contains sensory receptors for touch, pressure, pain and temperaturecontains sensory receptors for touch, pressure, pain and temperature has blood vessels to nourish skinhas blood vessels to nourish skin

19 Integumentary System: Skin and Accessory Organs Accessory OrgansAccessory Organs –Nails –Hair follicles –Oil glands –Sweat glands

20 Integumentary System: Skin and Accessory Organs FunctionsFunctions –Protects organs from physical trauma –Protects body from infections –Limits water loss –Regulates temperature

21 Body Cavities Cranial cavity Vertebral canal Thoracic cavity Abdominal cavity Pelvic cavity

22 Homeostatic Mechanisms Negative Feedback Ability to bring about a change in the opposite direction, leads to stability eg. temperature regulation Positive Feedback Rapid change in one direction eg. giving birth

23 Temperature Regulation Control center Sensor Effect 98.6  F set point Effect stimulus Normal body temperature above normal below normal sends data to control center 98.6  F set point directs response to stimulus Blood vessels dilate; sweat glands secrete. negative feedback and return to normal temperature sends data to control center negative feedback and return to normal Blood vessels constrict; sweat glands are inactive; shivering may occur. directs response to stimulus

24 Body Systems Contributing to Temperature Regulation Integumentary System Sweat glands Circulatory System Dilation or Constriction of Blood vessels Nervous System Hypothalamus (regulatory center)

25 Applying Your Knowledge A.Which is the outermost skin layer? (1 or 2) B.Which skin layer contains blood vessels? (1 or 2) C.Which mechanism controls blood glucose levels? (3 or 4) D.Which mechanism causes a fever to increase to higher temperatures? (3 or 4) 1. Dermis 2. Epidermis 3. Positive Feedback 4. Negative Feedback


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