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Tissue Types Integumentary System Homeostatic Mechanisms

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Presentation on theme: "Tissue Types Integumentary System Homeostatic Mechanisms"— Presentation transcript:

1 Tissue Types Integumentary System Homeostatic Mechanisms
Body Systems Tissue Types Integumentary System Homeostatic Mechanisms

2 Four Major Tissue Types
Connective: binds and supports body parts Muscular: allows movement Nervous: receives stimuli and conducts impulses Epithelial: covers body surfaces, lines body cavities

3 Three Components of Connective Tissue
Specialized cells Protein Fibers collagen elastic fiber reticular fiber Ground Substance: Non-cellular material separating cells

4 Loose Fibrous Connective Tissue
Contains fibroblast cells Matrix: ground substance + fibers Protective covering for muscles, blood vessels, nerves

5 Dense Fibrous Connective Tissue
Collagen fibers packed together Forms Tendons: connect muscles to bone Ligaments: connect bone to bone

6 Fibrous Connective Tissue: Adipose Tissue
nucleus Fig. 4.4c Cells store fat Found under skin, around kidneys, heart

7 Supportive Connective Tissue: Cartilage
Solid, flexible matrix Cells located in chambers – lacunae Elastic cartilage --elastin fibers --more flexible --outer ear Fibrocartilage --strong collagen fibers --between vertebrae and in knee joint Hyaline cartilage --most common --contains fine collagen fibers --nose, ends of long bones and ribs, walls of respiratory passages

8 Supportive Connective Tissue: Bone
Solid, rigid matrix of calcium salts around collagen fibers In compact bone, cells are located in spaces between rings of matrix Spongy bone Compact bone

9 Fluid Connective Tissue: Blood
Liquid matrix = plasma dissolved substances, eg. gases, ions suspended substances, eg. proteins Formed elements: cells and cell fragments Red blood cells White blood cells Platelets Cell fragments that aid in blood clotting transport oxygen fight infection

10 Fluid Connective Tissue: Lymph
Liquid matrix = lymphatic fluid Contains white blood cells

11 Applying Your Knowledge
Adipose Tissue Blood Bone Dense Fibrous Connective Tissue Which type of tissue has a liquid matrix? Which type of tissue stores fat? Which type of tissue has a solid matrix of calcium salts?

12 Muscular Tissue Cells are called muscle fibers
Cells contain protein filaments called actin and myosin Smooth Muscle Involuntary cell nucleus Skeletal Muscle Voluntary nucleus striation Cardiac Muscle Involuntary nucleus

13 Nervous Tissue Neurons- conduct nerve impulses
Neuroglia- support and nourish neurons Receives signals from other neurons Maintains cell metabolism Conducts signals to next neuron Insulates neuron

14 Classification of Epithelial Tissue
Cuboidal: cube-shaped cells Squamous: flattened cells Columnar: elongated cells Pseudostratified Columnar Simple = one layer Pseudostratified = appears as multiple layers Stratified = multiple layers

15 Other Terms Related to Epithelial Tissue
Basement Membrane- joins epithelium to underlying connective tissue Gland- epithelial tissue that secretes a product mucus hormones

16 Applying Your Knowledge
Nervous Tissue Epithelial Tissue Muscular Tissue Connective Tissue Which type of tissue includes cells in a solid matrix, as for cartilage? Which type of tissue covers body surfaces? Which type of tissue receives and transmits signals? Which tissue has cells with actin and myosin filaments?

17 Integumentary System: Skin and Accessory Organs
Regions of the Skin Epidermis stratified squamous epithelium cells become hardened due to keratin continually replaced from basal layer melanocytes give pigmentation

18 Integumentary System: Skin and Accessory Organs
Regions of the Skin Dermis dense fibrous connective tissue contains collagen and elastic fibers contains sensory receptors for touch, pressure, pain and temperature has blood vessels to nourish skin

19 Integumentary System: Skin and Accessory Organs
Nails Hair follicles Oil glands Sweat glands

20 Integumentary System: Skin and Accessory Organs
Functions Protects organs from physical trauma Protects body from infections Limits water loss Regulates temperature

21 Body Cavities Cranial cavity Vertebral canal Thoracic cavity
Abdominal cavity Pelvic cavity

22 Homeostatic Mechanisms
Negative Feedback Ability to bring about a change in the opposite direction, leads to stability eg. temperature regulation Positive Feedback Rapid change in one direction eg. giving birth

23 Temperature Regulation
Control center sends data to control center 98.6°F set point directs response to stimulus Sensor Effect Temperature Regulation Blood vessels dilate; sweat glands secrete. negative feedback and return to normal temperature stimulus above normal Normal body temperature below normal negative feedback and return to normal stimulus Effect Sensor Blood vessels constrict; sweat glands are inactive; shivering may occur. Control center directs response to stimulus sends data to control center 98.6°F set point

24 Body Systems Contributing to Temperature Regulation
Integumentary System Sweat glands Circulatory System Dilation or Constriction of Blood vessels Nervous System Hypothalamus (regulatory center)

25 Applying Your Knowledge
Dermis Epidermis Positive Feedback Negative Feedback Which is the outermost skin layer? (1 or 2) Which skin layer contains blood vessels? (1 or 2) Which mechanism controls blood glucose levels? (3 or 4) Which mechanism causes a fever to increase to higher temperatures? (3 or 4)

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