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© UCL Crypto group – October 2004 – I0 Low Cost Security for Internet-0? Frontiers and Limits Jean-Jacques Quisquater (visiting scientist.

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Presentation on theme: "© UCL Crypto group – October 2004 – I0 Low Cost Security for Internet-0? Frontiers and Limits Jean-Jacques Quisquater (visiting scientist."— Presentation transcript:

1 © UCL Crypto group – October 2004 – I0 Low Cost Security for Internet-0? Frontiers and Limits Jean-Jacques Quisquater (visiting scientist at MIT) (research director CNRS, France) Université catholique de Louvain Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium UCL Crypto Group

2 © UCL Crypto group October I0 2 bquestionsquestions security? existence of secure objects? low cost security? state-of-the art? security? existence of secure objects? low cost security? state-of-the art?

3 © UCL Crypto group October I0 3 Goal of security for I-0 Accidental access by neighbors Malicious access by others Cloning? Security from internet-1?: many solutions: ssh, tls, https, ipsec, … Many crypto algorithms are not designed for low power or for small implementations (compression?) Similar situation: smart card (contact or contactless) versus card reader

4 © UCL Crypto group October I0 4 Cost of security? Implementation (not the losses) Comms Silicon area Programs (protocols) Detectors (intrusion) and firewalls Physical security (tamperresistance) Update: the third version syndrome

5 © UCL Crypto group October I0 5 Internet-0 Low cost object Slow and close communication « serial » communication …

6 © UCL Crypto group October I0 6 Cost of security? Smart cards Implementation (not the risk) Comms 9600b-100kb-…- Silicon area 3mm 2- O.1… Programs (protocols) 2kBytes- Detectors (intrusion) and firewalls % Physical security (tamperresistance) !!!??? Update: Java applets

7 © UCL Crypto group October I0 7 Security is a dynamic process Best at the beginning of the system life, if static Initialisation (keys, names, …): here we need some physical security (context) Uses: new applications and contexts Update, new attacks (algo, hardware, …) End of life

8 © UCL Crypto group – October 2004 – I0 Short Story of Smart Cards René Barjavel (1966) « La nuit des temps » (Gondas) several inventors in USA (IBM ), Japan, Germany, France Roland Moreno (F) pushed the right version (1974) Michel Ugon and Louis Guillou were the technical inventors (~ 1977) SPOM: single chip (security): 1981: first crypto algo and protocol (secret key): tests in France first DES: 1985 (TRASEC, Belgium,TB100 -> Proton) first RSA: CORSAIR(Philips): 1989 (coprocessor) first RISC 32 bits: 1997 (CASCADE-> GemExpresso) first JAVA smart card: 1997 (Schlumberger-software)...

9 © UCL Crypto group October I0 9 Ring by Moreno (1974) and first smart card (1980)

10 © UCL Crypto group October I0 10 The chip (a complete computer) CPU security logic and sensors ROM: OS - including self-test procedures RAM (mainly static) (E)EPROM and/or flash memory –cryptographic keys –PIN –biometric profiles –applications serial I/O internal bus(ses) accelerators for cryptoalgorithms DES, RSA... (coprocessors)

11 © UCL Crypto group October I0 11 The chip (IC) ROM EEPROM flash memory EEPROM flash memory CPU I/O coprocessor DES – RSA -ECC coprocessor DES – RSA -ECC security logic security logic RAM sensors firewall Reset Ground Volt Clock

12 © UCL Crypto group October I0 12 A complete computer with crypto

13 © UCL Crypto group October I0 13 Standards for (secure) chips ISO-7816 GSM 11.* EMV FIPS 140-1,-2 … Do you need it?

14 © UCL Crypto group October I0 14 Lesson learned from smart cards Design for: – access for payTV, – phone coins, – banking cards, – common property: easy to trace or small loss. Security is « easy »: avoiding intrusion But used for many applications with high targets (SWIFT, …) Problems of side-channels (1996)

15 © UCL Crypto group October I0 15 identification possession knowledge (biological)characteristics PIN - password passport smart card I-0 device passport smart card I-0 device biometrybiometry  IEEE spectrum Feb. 94  IEEE spectrum Feb. 94 proof? proof? proof?

16 © UCL Crypto group October I0 16 (Physical) naming process By an authority (TTP) Self-nomination (using some random process) Distributed // election of a leader in a group

17 © UCL Crypto group October I0 ; transform or add redondancy : cryptography SENDER (Alice) SENDER (Alice) RECEIVER (Bob) Trust! RECEIVER (Bob) Trust!  message      

18 © UCL Crypto group October I0 authentication PROVER VERIFIER password computer warden carlamp user person driverswitch identity  spy (on line)  fake prover (copy or fake identity)  fake verifier

19 © UCL Crypto group October I0 Authentication today PROVER VERIFIER contract commitment surprise answer

20 © UCL Crypto group October I0  proof: –specific protocol: theory invented in 1984, called “zero-knowledge”  new proof (fresh): –verifier must be convinced it is not a replay  tamper-resistant object: –“smart card” –secure and powerful microprocessor –important subject of research Solutions

21 © UCL Crypto group – October 2004 – I0 AliceBob Query: (d-bit string) Response: (t-bit string) q ← g etRandomCorner(); send (q); r ← receive(); if (abs(r-f(q))

22 © UCL Crypto group October I0 22

23 © UCL Crypto group October I0 23 Generic model of card for passive attacks ChipChip CLK GRD VCC RST I/O 2. SPA-DPA 1. timing 3. probing 4. measures of radiations 4. measures of radiations

24 © UCL Crypto group October I0 24 Side Story of Side Channel Analysis 1986: PIN code of smart card broken by timing attack … 1992: TNO discovers a relation between smart card power consumption and program code 1992: Philips did the same … 1994: TNO develops software to visualise program structure 1995: BellCore invents the “MicroWave Attack”, and Differential Fault Analysis (DFA) 1995: Paul Kocher invents timing attack 1997: Paul Kocher invents Differential Power Analysis (DPA) 1998: TNO implements DPA 1998: Gemplus invents Voltage Manipulation (VM) 1999: TNO implements VM for Single Fault Injection (SFI) 2000: Q.-Samyde implements Electromagnetic Analysis (EMA) TNO ©

25 © UCL Crypto group October I0 25 Security: Baran (1964, Rand)

26 © UCL Crypto group October I0 26 Analysis of a simple model (Vernam) EXOR secret key k i output c i input m i mi ki ci mi ki ci if for some reason the two zeroes are not the same (SPA...) this perfect system is completely broken.

27 © UCL Crypto group October I0 27 Timing attacksChipChip CLK GRD VCC RST I/O 1. timing the measure of the timing and the (some) knowledge of the implementation of the used cryptographic algorithm together a lot of well chosen inputs-outputs with some statistical treatment give the secret key in use (works well for RSA-like algorithms) countermeasure: I/O not related to the key at all (constant run-time for instance).

28 © UCL Crypto group October I0 28 Fault attacks (Bellcore) Key=

29 © UCL Crypto group October I0 29 Implementation problems (Joye, Lenstra, Q.) - optimisation: minimisation of the number of multiplications and square Error or attack? Bug Pentium … - Chinese Remainder Theorem mod p mod q exp m m combine error! p and q are in danger! p and q are in danger!

30 © UCL Crypto group October I0 30 ElectroMagnetic Analysis Similar processing as PA, sensing and leakage are different. Use a different probe (that not interferes with the chip): –Hand-made (Gemplus) –RF receiver (IBM) –Flat inductor and MEMS (UCL) 3 mm 0.5 mm

31 © UCL Crypto group October I0 31 Spatial positioning Horizontal cartography (XY plane) –to pinpoint instruction related areas –better if automated CPU EEPROM ROM RAM CRYPTO Probe 4.5 mm 5.5 mm Gemplus ©

32 © UCL Crypto group October I0 32 Side Channel Conclusion Direct and serious threat to the security of crypto systems Applicable to all algorithms (mostly) a non-destructive class of attacks Can be developed in order of weeks, repeated in order of hours Can be prevented or discouraged by (combinations of) countermeasures

33 © UCL Crypto group October I0 33 Faults insertion - Eddy Currents (ESmart 2002) Aim: Cryptanalysis of an algorithm using fault(s) -Local heating -Optical attack (Ches 2002) -Glitch attack clock -Local ionisation (Rads 2003) - UV light applied to a certain location - X-rays

34 © UCL Crypto group October I0 34 Security? Free slot at a cyclotron

35 © UCL Crypto group October I0 35 Countermeasures Scramble the memory structure Dedicated sensors Opaque passivation layer or top-layer shielding Self-timed circuit & Dual-rail logic CRC Software countermeasures

36 © UCL Crypto group October I0 36 Countermeasures Software –Check each bit before to set/reset it –Test integrity of all ( Data, Crypto, … ) Hardware : –Scramble the memory structure –Implement CRC (Well chosen) –Build new architecture for error detection/corrections –Asynchronous processors (www.g3card.org)www.g3card.org –Dedicated sensors and avoid static sensors If there is a CRC check, there’s a transistor to give a right or wrong value… It could then be possible to lock the value (FPGA,…). UCL ©

37 © UCL Crypto group October I0 37 Countermeasures A lot: New hardware design, new technology, … Randomize carefully! No difference between square and multiply (add and doubling): subtle solutions, Verify the result before outputs, … Very mathematical, very cryptographic, Another story (see recent thesis of Mathieu Ciet – UCL, June 2003 about ECC, aso).

38 © UCL Crypto group October I0 38

39 © UCL Crypto group October I0 39 Other directions Quantum cryptography: nanocrypto More physics less cryptography: new research Identify the object (variations, added or not) Use the object in protocols?


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