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G53SEC 1 Hardware Security The (slightly) more tactile side of security.

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Presentation on theme: "G53SEC 1 Hardware Security The (slightly) more tactile side of security."— Presentation transcript:

1 G53SEC 1 Hardware Security The (slightly) more tactile side of security

2 G53SEC Overview of Today’s Lecture: Hardware vs. Software Security Attacks, Threats and Attackers Security Categories Examples 2

3 G53SEC Hardware Security vs. Security So Far: Different Landscape - Threats - Attackers - Attacks As important as software/network security 3

4 G53SEC Threat Vectors: Interception - Gain access to information without interfering with system Interruption - Prevention of system functionality Modification - Invasive tampering Fabrication - Counterfeiting 4

5 G53SEC Attackers: Class 0 – Script Kiddies Class I – Clever Outsider - Intelligent, limited knowledge of target - Usually through a known weakness Class II – Knowledgeable Insider - High-tech expertise - Advanced tools and instruments Class III – Funded Organisation - Specialists with lots of funding - Most advanced tools and analysis 5

6 G53SEC Attacks: Insider Attack - e.g. Laid-off employee Lunchtime Attack - Performed during a small window of opportunity - e.g. during coffee break Focused Attack - Plenty of time, money and resources 6

7 G53SEC Attacks: Invasive Attacks - e.g. Hardware reverse engineering Semi-invasive Attacks - e.g. Heating Non-Invasive Attacks - e.g. EM radiation observation 7

8 G53SEC Security Categories: Physical Logical Environmental Operational 8

9 G53SEC Physical Security: Tampering “An (physical) interference of a harmful nature” Tamper Mechanisms: Strive to prevent an attempt by an attacker to perform unauthorised physical or electronic action 9

10 G53SEC Tamper Mechanisms: Tamper Resistance - Special materials Tamper Evidence - Visible evidence left behind after tampering Tamper Detection - Hardware is aware of tampering Tamper Response - Countermeasures upon detection 10

11 G53SEC Physical Attacks: Invasive - Direct access to embedded components (e.g. cpu) - Micro probing, reverse engineering, memory readout techniques (e.g. freezing) - Require lot of time, knowledge and resources Semi-invasive (integrated chip cards) - UV lights, x-rays, laser, EM field, heating - Optical fault induction (SRAM illumination) - Low cost, easy reproduction on same target 11

12 G53SEC Physical Attacks: Micro-probing station: 12 Modified Circuit: Source: Cambridge Security Lab

13 G53SEC Logical Security: Access Control Cryptographic Algorithms Cryptographic Protocols 13

14 G53SEC Logical Attacks: Non-Invasive No Physical Damage Monitoring/Eavesdropping - TEMPEST attacks - Side Channel Attacks - Timing Analysis - Power Analysis - Fault Analysis 14

15 G53SEC Logical Attacks: Software Attacks – API - No specialised equipment needed - Very fast Issues: - Integrity of keys - Function parameter checking - Security policy enforcement 15

16 G53SEC Environmental Security: Device itself is the asset Goal – limit attacker’s possibilities by creating layers of hindrance (e.g. access) Administrative controls should be part of security policy 16

17 G53SEC Operational Security: Security risks related to operation of hardware Closely related to last week’s lecture Example: ATMs User’s knowledge of: - Real vs. Fake card reader - Keypad operation - PIN Safeguarding - Latest attacks 17

18 G53SEC Hardware Security Modules: For secure generation and storage of crypto information Often physically tamper resistant Sometimes have H/W cryptographic acceleration Sometimes have special “trusted” peripherals (e.g. card readers, key pads, etc..) Example: Banks - ATMs - Pre-payment electricity meters 18

19 G53SEC Examples: Credit Cards - Magnetic Stripes - Chip & PIN - RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) 19

20 G53SEC Examples: Chip & PIN relay attack: Source: Cambridge Security Lab 20

21 G53SEC Examples: RFID – Radio Frequency Identification Originally developed as the “Barcode of the future” Now used as - Inventory control - Logistics and supply chain management - Physical access cards - Payment - Motorway charges - Gas stations - Small items in shop 21

22 G53SEC Examples: Future: - Embedded in all kinds of devices - From clothing, to all products we buy e.g. Milk that will tell fridge when it is expired Issues: - Privacy - Security – RFID was not designed with security in mind!! 22

23 G53SEC Examples: Susceptible to Power Analysis attacks Can be susceptible to Cloning attacks Susceptible to Relay attacks “Is your cat infected with a computer virus?” 23

24 G53SEC Remember: H/W security as important as other security aspects H/W security devices do not solve security Many attacks exist Many more problems are on the way Because – Security added as an afterthought 24

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