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Section 11.1 FDR and the First New Deal Smiling FDR with trademark cigarette holder (and cigarette) in his hand.

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Presentation on theme: "Section 11.1 FDR and the First New Deal Smiling FDR with trademark cigarette holder (and cigarette) in his hand."— Presentation transcript:

1 Section 11.1 FDR and the First New Deal Smiling FDR with trademark cigarette holder (and cigarette) in his hand

2 What traits make a great president in a time of crisis? Intelligence Experience Expertise Stamina Compassion Charisma Which did Hoover lack? What does this say about the role of the media? President Hoover addresses the nation via radio

3 Objectives At the end of this lesson (two to three classes), you should be able to: Describe FDR’s background and traits in a short paragraph (Was he destined for greatness?) What was the Hundred Days? How did FDR deal with the Bank Crisis? How did FDR give immediate relief to the needy? How did the New Deal relief efforts help to stimulate the economy and modernize the nation? How did the National Recovery Administration (NRA) try to increase productivity and workers? How did the AAA try to help farmers and why were the results so controversial? How did the TVA try to aid in long-term recovery? How did FDR try to restore confidence in the stock market and banks? How did FDR make people feel ‘connected’ to the White House?

4 Who was FDR? Sheltered life Did not seem presidential –“nice but colorless” Married to Eleanor She took him to see poor people –“I didn’t know people lived like that!” FDR Assistant Secretary of Navy ( ) VP candidate in 1920 Stricken with polio in 1921 –Life-changing –Recovery demonstrated “grit” Elected governor of NY in 1928, 1930 (two-year terms) Young Franklin with his mother Paralyzed FDR with girl

5 FDR Background Montage of FDR photos including one of him swimming (part of polio rehab regimen)

6 Describe FDR’s Inauguration March 4, years into the Depression Americans lacked faith in country, capitalism Outlined New Deal plan for economic recovery “We have nothing to fear but fear itself.” –Compare with Obama on EconomyObama on Economy Scenes from FDR’s first inaugural

7 First Inaugural Address FDR takes the oath of office: “I (insert name of President) do solemnly swear that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States. So help me God.”

8 100 Days Presentation FDR signs legislation (part of first New Deal) during his initial three months in office

9 What was the Hundred Days? Term to describe first three (3) months of FDR’s administration; marked by rapid new legislation March 9-June 16, new laws FDR was an experimenter Says “A New Captain at the Wheel” and depicts FDR steering the “ship of state”

10 How did FDR deal with the Bank Crisis? 38 state banks had closed Americans stuffed the mattresses –Hoarded their money declared a ‘bank holiday’ from 3/5-3/9 ‘sound’ banks reopened ‘unsound’ opened after government aid arrived Reassured public began to deposit $ back in bank and crisis was over Top: unclear image shows a stampede; Below, another FDR with cigarette and holder in mouth behind wheel of auto

11 100 Days Young-looking FDR in top hat, riding this time

12 What was the New Deal? FDR’s plan for economic reform (recall New Nationalism, New Freedom) Legislation addressed the “3 R’s” Relief –(for unemployed) Recovery –measures to stimulate the economy Reform –laws to help lessen threat of future economic disaster Top: FDR signs legislation; below, “alphabet soup agencies as kids dancing around FDR

13 New Deal Video capture (black screen) but it summarizes New Deal

14 How did FDR give immediate relief to the needy? Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) –gave $500 million directly to relief agencies Critics said rapid distribution of funds may hurt in long run Harry Hopkins –Disliked dole (government charity) Thought it broke down self esteem But said: –“People don’t eat in the long run— they have to eat every day.” Top: Harry Hopkins; below, complex cartoon critical of New Deal “pump”

15 How did the New Deal relief efforts help to stimulate the economy and modernize the nation? Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) –100, 000s put to work on environmental projects (state, national parks) –Got room/board + $30 per month Public Works Administration (PWA) –Built schools, dams, sewer pipes, highways, modernized nation –stimulated local economies Top: Cover of a CCC manual; below, CCC boys at work thinning a forest

16 How did the National Recovery Administration (NRA) try to increase productivity and workers? National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) –‘asked’ business to set quality standards, maximum work hours, minimum wages –Allow workers to form unions, collective bargaining Publicity campaign –only buy from companies displaying blue eagle hurt small companies Top and below: The NRA Blue Eagle

17 New Deal Programs FDR poses by the fireside with his wife and mother

18 How did the AAA try to help farmers recover and why were the results so controversial? Agricultural Adjustment Administration –subsidized farmers to reduce production –Help to raise prices Controversial –1933 – farmland/newborn animals were destroyed to meet requirements Top: farmer receives his AAA check; below, cattle being rounded up

19 Video capture (first image is of Dust Bowl but the clip is about the farm crisis and FDR’s response)

20 How did the TVA try to aid in long-term recovery? Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) –Built dams on Tennessee River and created electricity –intended to create ecosystems, lakes, tourism, jobs Critics –Farmers who lost land –Businesses saw TVA as unfair competition Above: Map showing area for Tennessee Valley Authority; below, one of the dams

21 How did FDR try to restore confidence in the stock market and banks? Truth-in-Securities Act –said that companies who deceived investors about its financial status could be sued Glass-Steagall Banking Act –prohibited banks from investing savings deposits in the unpredictable stock market Repealed by Gramm-Leach- Bliley Act –Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) –insured deposits ($5 thousand) –Now $250 thousand Top, panic outside a bank; below, calm scene outside a bank

22 How did FDR make people feel ‘connected’ to the White House? Fireside Chats- –FDR’s frequent radio addresses that outlined his policies and reassured public Held weekly press conferences and answered all questions Eleanor Roosevelt –Symbol of Roosevelt’s empathy, energy to the downtrodden –Received hundreds of thousands of letters each year Dressed-up Eleanor Roosevelt

23 FDR and the Media Video clip: first frame is of Capitol steps being readied for inaugural

24 Conclusion Was the New Deal a liberal or conservative program? Liberal in that a lot of new, progressive programs were created that moved the country toward a bigger role for government Conservative in that FDR’s goal was to preserve the system and the programs he introduced were much less radical than what was going on in Europe


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