Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 The Self. 5-2 Perspectives on the Self We buy products to highlight or hide aspects of ourselves Eastern cultures focus on: The collective self."— Presentation transcript:
5-2 Perspectives on the Self We buy products to highlight or hide aspects of ourselves Eastern cultures focus on: The collective self (person’s identity comes from group) The interdependent self (person’s identity defined from relationships with others) Western cultures focus on: Individuality Individual appearance
5-3 Self-Concept Self-concept: the beliefs a person holds about his/her own attributes, and how he/she evaluates these qualities Attribute dimensions: content, positivity, intensity, stability over time, and accuracy
Self-Concept Which Hillary Clinton version did the subject prefer?
5-5 Self-Esteem Self-esteem: the positivity of a person’s self-concept Low self-esteem: think they won’t perform well or will fail High self-esteem: think they will be successful and are more willing to take risks Triggering Social Comparison Attractive models using products Seeing a friend, coworker or family member’s wealth / possessions.
5-6 Real and Ideal Selves Ideal self: our conception of how we would like to be Actual self: our more realistic appraisal of who / what we are Products can: Help us become the ideal self, or Help us be consistent with the actual self Stronger bonds formed with “actual self” products Impression management: We work to “manage” what others think of us
5-7 Multiple Selves Each of us has many selves and roles Woman Mother Sister Pro athlete Friend Wife Spokesperson American citizen
5-8 Virtual Identity People are assuming virtual identities in cyberspace How do online “selves” affect consumer behavior? How has social media affected digital personas?
5-9 Symbolic Interactionism Symbolic Interactionism: relationships with others play a large part in forming the self Your personality and self-concept is influenced by what others want / need you to be “Who am I in this situation?” “Who do others think I am?” “Who do others need / want me to be?” We pattern our behavior on the perceived expectation of others
5-10 Looking-Glass Self Looking-glass Self: taking the role of the other We take readings of our own identity by “bouncing” signals off others and trying to interpret what impression they have of us (i.e. “human sonar”) Somewhat of an admission that we do NOT fully know our own selves
5-11 Self-Consciousness Self-consciousness: active awareness of self Researchers say that those who score high in: Public self-consciousness are more interested in clothing and use more cosmetics Self-monitoring are attuned to how they present themselves in social environments More likely to adapt their behaviors and personality to fit the situation Republicans vs. Democrats
Self/Product Congruence Self-image congruence models: we choose products when their attributes match our own (perceived and actual) attributes Product UsageSelf-Image =
5-13 You Are What You Consume Inferences are made of others’ personalities based on their consumption patterns Consumers may attach themselves to a product to maintain or complete their self-concepts as a psychological “crutch” in uncertain circumstances Symbolic Self-completion Theory: people who have an incomplete self-definition complete the identity by acquiring and displaying symbols associated with it. Example: Unsuccessful job-landing B-school students tend to buy more business attire and accessories Hobby novices buy more stuff than they need
5-14 The Extended Self Extended self: external objects that we consider a part of us Examples: Tennis Racquet Car Computer Smartphone IPhone Starbuck’s Coffee cup Sunglasses Residence and furnishings Community: neighborhood or town where you live Social Media Footprint
5-15 Gender Differences in Socialization Gender roles vary by culture but are changing Many societies still expect traditional roles: Agentic roles: men are expected to be assertive and possess certain “survival” skills Communal roles: women are taught to foster harmonious relationships
5-16 Sex-Typed Traits and Sex-Typed Products Sex-typed traits: characteristics we stereotypically associate with a specific gender. Male: Strong, assertive, decisive, unemotional Female: Relationship-building, nurturing, emotional Sex-typed products: take on masculine or feminine attributes Pink clothing (or pink anything!) Most bath /spa products (soaps, scrubs, lotions, etc.) Beer, Vodka and Strawberry Daiquiris Sports cars vs. Volvos Electronics and Gadgets Phones
5-18 Androgyny Androgyny: possession of both masculine and feminine traits Androgynous people function better in social situations Tend to be happier and more satisfied with life Sex-typed people: possessing stereotypically masculine or feminine traits Example: Listening Focus Females more sensitive to details Men more attuned to overall themes Masculinity and Femininity is NOT (necessarily) biological
For Reflection What are two examples of sex-typed products? What are examples of “gender-bending” products? Are there situations for which promoting sex-typed or gender-bending products might limit the market for a product?
5-20 Female Sex Roles New managerial class of women has forced marketers to re-examine strategies Sporting goods, car accessories, and electronics products targeted to women Examples: Nike, HP
5-21 Male Sex Roles Masculinism: study of male image and the complex cultural meanings of masculinity Three traditional models of masculinity: Breadwinner Rebel Man-of-action hero
5-22 Male Sex Roles (cont.) Metrosexuals: straight, urban males who exhibit strong interests and knowledge in fashion, home design, gourmet cooking, and personal care that run counter to those of traditional male sex roles Prosumers/Urban Influentials: educated consumers who are willing and able to focus attention on their personal appearance Both of these consumer groups (which overlap) have been steadily growing over time
5-23 GLBT Consumers 4% to 8% of U.S. population Spend $250–$350 billion a year Are more likely to: Hold professional jobs Own vacation home Own the latest technology (smartphone, tablet, GPS, etc.)
5-24 Body Image Body image: a consumer’s subjective evaluation of his/her physical self Body cathexis: person’s feelings about his or her own body Strong body cathexis = frequent purchases of “preening” products The way we think about our bodies (and the way our culture tells us we should think about our bodies) is a key component of self-esteem.
5-25 Ideals of Beauty “What is beautiful is good” stereotype Favorable physical features: Attractive faces Healthy Youthful Balance/symmetry Feminine curves/hourglass body shape “Strong” male features (boxed jaw, muscular) – but not too strong
5-26 The Western Ideal Less powerful cultures adopt standards of beauty in dominant cultures (sometimes) Temporary and permanent bodily alterations to obtain big round eyes, tiny waists, large breasts, blond hair, and blue eyes Is this changing?
5-27 Ideals of Beauty Over Time Specific “looks”/ideals of beauty Ancient Greece and parts of modern-day Africa: Heavier women perceived as more attractive and healthy Early 1800s: “delicate/looking ill” appearance 1890s: voluptuous, lusty was “in” Bad economy: mature features are “in” Good economy: babyish features are “in”
5-28 Body Image Distortions To some, body quality reflects self-worth particularly among women, but increasingly among men too Distorted body image is linked to eating disorders among females Anorexia Bulimia Fad Diets Many blame Hollywood and the media (are they right?) Body dysmorphic disorder (obsession with perceived flaws in appearance) becoming more common among young men
5-29 Body Decoration and Mutilation Decorating the self Separates group members from nonmembers Places the individual in the social organization Provides a sense of security Tattoos and body piercing Historically associated with social outcasts Now a mainstream fashion statement