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Dr Archna Ghildiyal Associate Professor Department of Physiology KGMU Respiratory System.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr Archna Ghildiyal Associate Professor Department of Physiology KGMU Respiratory System."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr Archna Ghildiyal Associate Professor Department of Physiology KGMU Respiratory System

2 LECTURE:8 Contents Regulation of Respiration: Neural Group of Neurons controlling Respiration Breathing rhythm: Ramp Signals Lung Receptors

3 Learning Objectives NeuralControl of Respiration : - Automatic -Voluntary I & E Neurones Inspiratory “Ramp” Signal Pre-Botzinger Complex Lung Receptors

4 Neural Control of Respiration Breathing Automatic/Spontaneous Voluntary

5 Neural control of Respiration

6 Groups of Neurons in the Respiratory Center In medulla Dorsal respiratory group Ventral respiratory group In Pons Pneumotaxic center Apneustic Center?

7 Dorsal Respiratory Group(DRG) Most neurons located within NTS, some in adjacent reticular substance of medulla Normal quiet breathing: Repititive Inspiratory signals from DRG Controls Inspiration Respiratory rhythm

8 Inspiratory “Ramp” Signals Rhythmical Inspiratory discharge from DRG Nervous signal that is transmitted to the inspiratory muscles, mainly the diaphragm Begins weakly & increases steadily for about 2 secs in normal respiration (inspiration) Then ceases abruptly for approx next 3 secs (expiration)

9 Control of Inspiratory Ramp 1.Control of the rate of increase of the ramp signal  rate of ramp signal - ramp increases rapidly - fills the lungs rapidly 2.Control of the limiting point at which the ramp suddenly ceases Usual method for controlling the rate of respiration; shortens the duration of Inspiration & Expiration(  frequency of respiration )

10 Contd… Stopping the Ramp  Shortens the rate of inspiration and expiration  Increasing the frequency of respiration

11 Pneumotaxic center (upper pons) Located dorsally in upper pons,in N.parabrachialis Sends continual inhibitory impulses to inspiratory center Ramp controls stopping point of DRG Inhibits I neurons Switch breathing from inspiration to expiration

12 Contd… As impulse frequency rises: Faster and Shallower Breathing Damage to Pneumotaxic center : Results in increased depth of inspiration

13 Ventral respiratory group(VRG) Located in ventrolateral part of medulla,in N.ambigues & N.retroambigues Functions in both Inspiration & Expiration Remain inactive during normal quite respiration

14 Contd… Act as Overdrive mechanism (as in heavy exercise) Powerful expiratory signals to internal intercostal & abdominal muscles

15 Pre-Bötzinger Complex Cluster of interneurons in the ventrolateral medulla of the Brainstem Contains Pace maker Cells- Spontaneous Breathing

16 Apneustic Center (Lower Pons) Role not clear Stimulation causes Apneusis( pause at full inspiration) Integrates inspiratory cut-off information

17 Mechanism of Rhythmic Ventilation –Medullary respiratory center neurons are continuously active (spontaneous/automatic breathing) –Combined input from all sources (receptors,brain) causes action potentials to stimulate respiratory muscles

18 To Increase Inspiration More and more neurons get activated To Stop Inspiration Neurons receive input from pontine group and stretch receptors in lungs Inhibitory neurons activated, cause Inspiratory switch-off, Start of expiration Effect: Relaxation of Inspiratory muscles

19 Voluntary control Provided via the Cerebral Cortex Modulate the activity of controlling centers in the medulla and pons Allow the rate and depth of respiration to be controlled During speaking, laughing, crying, eating, defecating, coughing, and sneezing

20 Contd… Chemoreceptor reflex is capable of overriding it. Conscious control of respiratory neuronal networks in the reticular formation can effect other basic functions regulated by the brainstem(Yogic exercises)


22 Contd… Stimulation of the reticular activating system of the brainstem (RAS):Stimulates Ventilation Sleep:  Ventilation

23 Peripheral receptors Chemoreceptors Pulmonary irritant receptors-on stimulation cause coughing,sneezing,bronchial constriction Lung “J Receptors” Hering-Breuer inflation reflex

24 Lung “J Receptors” Indian Physiologist Prof A S Paintal Location:Sensory nerve endings in alveolar walls in juxtaposition to pulmonary capillaries Stimulus: Severe exercise, Engorged capillaries,Pulmonary oedema Effect:Tachypnea,Hypotention,Bradycardia

25 J-Reflex Stimulation (severe exercise)  Inhibition of gama motor neurons supplying muscle spindle   Muscle Tone  Muscle Weakness & Stoppage of Exercise

26 Hering- Breuer Inflation Reflex Protective reflex Lung inflation signals limit inspiration Stretch Receptors: In Muscular Walls Of Bronchi & Bronchioles Active when Tidal volume > 1.5 liters/breath Inspiratory ramp :“Switches off”


28 References John E. Hall.Guyton & Hall Text book of Medical Physiology. A south Asian ed: New Delhi: Elsevier.2013.p. 364-373 Kim E. Barrett, Heddwen L. Brooks, Scott Boitano, Susan M. Barman.ed:23 rd Ganong’s Review of Medical Physiology:Mc Graw Hill student_files.html student_files.html

29 Question:1 Respiratory control centers are located in the : A) Midbrain and Medulla B) Medulla and Pons C) Pons and Midbrain D) Upper Spinal Cord and Medulla

30 Question:2 Damage to Pneumotaxic center results in: A) Decreased depth of Inspiration B) Increased depth of Inspiration C) Increased depth of Expiration D) Decreased depth of Expiration

31 Question:3 Stimulation of the reticular activating system of the brainstem (RAS) plays what role in ventilation? A) Stimulates ventilation B) Inhibits ventilation C) Stimulates inhalation but inhibits exhalation (apneustic breathing) D) Stimulates exhalation but inhibits inhalation

32 Question:4 Destruction of which part abolishes automatic respiration? A) Pre-Botzinger complex B) Ventral group of respiratory neurons C) Dorsal group of respiratory neurons D) Section at the inferior border of the pons

33 Question:5 Which of the following statement is true? A) Hering Breuer inflation reflex respond to lung distension by increasing frequency of respiration. B) Irritant receptors respond to noxious gases by reflex bronchodilatation C) J receptors respond to pulmonary capillary congestion by rapid shallow breathing D) DRG neurons initiate expiration

34 Answers 1-B 2-B 3- A 4- A 5-C


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