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by: Elora Zavala and Hallesha Williams

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1 by: Elora Zavala and Hallesha Williams
The Eye by: Elora Zavala and Hallesha Williams Make your edits, comment, or ask questions about what I did.

2 General Facts of the Eye
Purpose: to help see what is around you. About 1 inch in diameter Made up of 3 layers Outermost Cornea Sclera Middle Layer Choroid Ciliary Body Iris Innermost Retina we should change the purpose to something that sounds smarter lol

3 Cornea Clear, dome shaped surface that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber. Most powerful lens that has no blood vessels Contains Five Layers Epithelium Anterior Elastic Lamina Substantia Propria Posterior Elastic Lamina Corneal Endothemlium

4 Sclera White protective part of the eye Has Four layers Episclera
Stroma Lamina Fusca Endothelium

5 Choroid Layer of blood vessels between the retina and sclera
Supplies blood to retina

6 Ciliary Body Where aqueous humor is produced
Attached to lens by zonules Also controls focus by changing the shape of the lens.

7 Iris Colored part of the eye that is surrounded by sclera
Ring of muscle fibers located behind cornea and in front of lens. Consists of two layers Pigmented Epithelial Cells Pigmented Fibrovascular Tissue (Stroma) Connected to a sphincter muscle that controls dilation and contraction of pupil. Helps protect the sensitive retina

8 Retina Thin nerve membrane that detects light entering the eye

9 Retinal Blood Vessels Supply blood to the retina and are visible to the eye Located in the choroid just beneath retina

10 Retinal Pigment Epithelium
Layer of cells between the retina and choroid Melanin in the RPE gets rid of waste products

11 Pupil The opening in the iris.
Pupil size is seen by the iris contraction or dilations.

12 Crystalline Lens Located behind the cornea, normally clear
Light passes through pupil to lens Small muscles attached to lens

13 Vitreous Humor Jelly like, thick liquid that fills the eye to help maintain its shape Located between the the lens and retina Drains back into the blood through canals of schlemm

14 Canals of Schlemm Located around the perimeter of the iris
Allows vitreous gel (or aqueous humor) to drain back into blood stream I don’t understand this in your notes --I just added a pic :P

15 Vitreous Cavity The space between the lens and retina filled with gel.

16 Visual Fields Retina of each eye has two sections
Nasal Retina (Yellow) Temporal Retina (Green)

17 Optic Nerve The nerve at the back of the eye that carries visual information from the eye to the brain. Blind spot comes from the optic disc located near the optic nerve.

18 Macula Near the center of the retina at the back of the eyeball.
This part of the eye gives us our 20/20 vision.

19 Fovea Indentation in the center of the macula
Is responsible for our highest visual acuity The center of our central vision

20 Uvea Middle vascular layer of the eye Three Parts Iris Ciliary Body

21 Zonules Hundreds of string like fibers that hold in position
Enable it to change shape for near or distant vision

22 Fluid Chambers of the Eye
Anterior Chamber Space between cornea and iris filled with aqueous humor. Aqueous Humor Fluid produced in the eye Posterior Chamber Space between iris and lens filled with aqueous humor.

23 Muscles of the Eye Ciliary Muscle Changes the shape of the lens
Flattens lens for distance vision Contracts for closer vision Produces aqueous humor. I think there is more muscles than this… Ill look

24 Muscles of Eye cont. Muscles located OUTSIDE of the eye
Superior Rectus - rotates the eye upwards Inferior Rectus - rotates the eye downwards Medial Rectus - rotates the eye towards the nose Lateral Rectus - rotates the eye towards the ear Superior Oblique - aids in upward movement Inferior Oblique - aids in downward movement

25 Muscles of the Eye: cont.
Gonna need more info on this --previous slide

26 Accessory Organs Eyelashes/Eyebrows Conjunctiva
Specialized hairs that protect the eye for dust and insects Conjunctiva Thin, clear membrane located on the rim of bottom inner eyelids and covering front of the eye. Cells produce mucous to help lubricate the eye Inflammation is conjunctivitis, commonly known as pink eye.

27 Accessory Organs: cont.
Eye Socket Cone shaped bone cavity that protects the eye Padded with fatty tissue Eyelids Protects and lubricates the eye Lines the inner edge of the eyelid.

28 Accessory Organs: cont.
Tarsus Supports the eyelid skin Gives the lid its- Strength Shape Place for muscles to attach

29 Accessory Organs: cont
Lacrimal Sac Drains tears and other debris from eye Lacrimal Glands Releases tears and other protective fluid onto the surface of the eye Keeps cornea from being dehydrated

30 Accessory Organs: cont.
Visual Cortex Part of the brain that processes and combines visual information both eyes and converts it into sight Visual Axis Imaginary line drawn from the center of the pupil to the center of fovea. Fixation Point comes from the visual axis

31 Accessory Organs: cont.
Optic Chiasm First part of the brain to receive visual input Each eye takes a slightly different picture of the world


33 Neurons Ganglion Cells
Located near the inner surface of the retina of the eye. Receives visual information from photoreceptors via 2 intermediate neuron types: Bipolar and Amacrine cells. Amacrine Cells Considered a supplement to the action of horizontal cells Horizontal Cells Allows eyes to adjust to the bright and dim lights around them Bipolar Cells Transmit signals from the photoreceptors to the ganglion cells Refer to picture

34 Neurons: cont. Pigment Epithelium Rods/Cons
Shields the retina from excess incoming light Rods/Cons AKA Photoreceptors Found in the retina. Convert light into signals that can stimulate biological processes.

35 Cranial Nerves (involved with sight)
Optic (II) Sensory Sensory fibers transmit impulses associated with sense of vision Oculomotor (III) Motor fibers transmit impulses to muscles that raise eyelids, move the eyes, adjust amount of light that enters the eye, and focuses the lenses

36 Cranial Nerves cont. Trochlear (IV) Opthalmic Abducens (VI)
Motor fibers transmit impulses to muscles that move the eyes Opthalmic Sensory fibers transmit impulses from the surfaces of the eyes, tear glands, upper eyelids, etc. Abducens (VI) Motor fibers transmit impulses to the muscles that move the eys

37 Visual Receptors Visual receptor cells are a layer of rods and cones (the photoreceptor cells I mentioned earlier) that aid in visual inside of retina Each rod or cone contains a pigment that absorbs a certain type of wavelength better than others WHAT??!! I don’t get what you wrote Ill change it lol Better? --Kinda but it seems to “chill”..

38 Refraction Makes image formation possible
When light travels through the lens it’s path is bent or refracted. The eye itself, sees an image upside down but the signal to the brain flips it right side up. You don’t think she will want more detail than this? Idk just a thought --I think ill probably speak for this.. Plus I just added a bullet ^^^

39 Pigments Iodopsin Rhodopsin
a violet light-sensitive pigment in the cones of the retina of the eye that is responsible for color vision The pigment sensitive to red light in the retinal rods of the eyes, consisting of opsin and retinene. Also called visual purple

40 Dark VS Light Vision Dark Light Rods are responsible
Only can tell between black and white shade. Provides enhanced sensitivity Cons are responsible Eyes can see best in Responsible for color and fine detail. Goes with retina… plus I don’t understand your notes o.o

41 Convergent VS Divergent Waves
Convergent Waves Divergent Waves Eyes begin to look inward AKA Crossed Eyed Eyes begin to look outward AKA Lazy Eye

42 Stereoscopic Vision AKA Binocular Vision
Provides information to the brain to find the depth of the visual scene which is also known as 3D sight


44 Works Citied

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