Presentation on theme: "by: Elora Zavala and Hallesha Williams"— Presentation transcript:
1by: Elora Zavala and Hallesha Williams The Eyeby: Elora ZavalaandHallesha WilliamsMake your edits, comment, or ask questions about what I did.
2General Facts of the Eye Purpose: to help see what is around you.About 1 inch in diameterMade up of 3 layersOutermostCorneaScleraMiddle LayerChoroidCiliary BodyIrisInnermostRetinawe should change the purpose to something that sounds smarter lol
3CorneaClear, dome shaped surface that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.Most powerful lens that has no blood vesselsContains Five LayersEpitheliumAnterior Elastic LaminaSubstantia PropriaPosterior Elastic LaminaCorneal Endothemlium
4Sclera White protective part of the eye Has Four layers Episclera StromaLamina FuscaEndothelium
5Choroid Layer of blood vessels between the retina and sclera Supplies blood to retina
6Ciliary Body Where aqueous humor is produced Attached to lens by zonulesAlso controls focus by changing the shape of the lens.
7Iris Colored part of the eye that is surrounded by sclera Ring of muscle fibers located behind cornea and in front of lens. Consists of two layersPigmented Epithelial CellsPigmented Fibrovascular Tissue (Stroma)Connected to a sphincter muscle that controls dilation and contraction of pupil.Helps protect the sensitive retina
8RetinaThin nerve membrane that detects light entering the eye
9Retinal Blood VesselsSupply blood to the retina and are visible to the eyeLocated in the choroid just beneath retina
10Retinal Pigment Epithelium Layer of cells between the retina and choroidMelanin in the RPE gets rid of waste products
11Pupil The opening in the iris. Pupil size is seen by the iris contraction or dilations.
12Crystalline Lens Located behind the cornea, normally clear Light passes through pupil to lensSmall muscles attached to lens
13Vitreous HumorJelly like, thick liquid that fills the eye to help maintain its shapeLocated between the the lens and retinaDrains back into the blood through canals of schlemm
14Canals of Schlemm Located around the perimeter of the iris Allows vitreous gel (or aqueous humor) to drain back into blood streamI don’t understand this in your notes--I just added a pic :P
15Vitreous CavityThe space between the lens and retina filled with gel.
16Visual Fields Retina of each eye has two sections Nasal Retina (Yellow)Temporal Retina (Green)
17Optic NerveThe nerve at the back of the eye that carries visual information from the eye to the brain.Blind spot comes from the optic disc located near the optic nerve.
18Macula Near the center of the retina at the back of the eyeball. This part of the eye gives us our 20/20 vision.
19Fovea Indentation in the center of the macula Is responsible for our highest visual acuityThe center of our central vision
20Uvea Middle vascular layer of the eye Three Parts Iris Ciliary Body Choroid
21Zonules Hundreds of string like fibers that hold in position Enable it to change shape for near or distant vision
22Fluid Chambers of the Eye Anterior ChamberSpace between cornea and iris filled with aqueous humor.Aqueous HumorFluid produced in the eyePosterior ChamberSpace between iris and lens filled with aqueous humor.
23Muscles of the Eye Ciliary Muscle Changes the shape of the lens Flattens lens for distance visionContracts for closer visionProduces aqueous humor.I think there is more muscles than this…Ill look
24Muscles of Eye cont. Muscles located OUTSIDE of the eye Superior Rectus - rotates the eye upwardsInferior Rectus - rotates the eye downwardsMedial Rectus - rotates the eye towards the noseLateral Rectus - rotates the eye towards the earSuperior Oblique - aids in upward movementInferior Oblique - aids in downward movement
25Muscles of the Eye: cont. Gonna need more info on this--previous slide
26Accessory Organs Eyelashes/Eyebrows Conjunctiva Specialized hairs that protect the eye for dust and insectsConjunctivaThin, clear membrane located on the rim of bottom inner eyelids and covering front of the eye.Cells produce mucous to help lubricate the eyeInflammation is conjunctivitis, commonly known as pink eye.
27Accessory Organs: cont. Eye SocketCone shaped bone cavity that protects the eyePadded with fatty tissueEyelidsProtects and lubricates the eyeLines the inner edge of the eyelid.
28Accessory Organs: cont. TarsusSupports the eyelid skinGives the lid its-StrengthShapePlace for muscles to attach
29Accessory Organs: cont Lacrimal SacDrains tears and other debris from eyeLacrimal GlandsReleases tears and other protective fluid onto the surface of the eyeKeeps cornea from being dehydrated
30Accessory Organs: cont. Visual CortexPart of the brain that processes and combines visual information both eyes and converts it into sightVisual AxisImaginary line drawn from the center of the pupil to the center of fovea.Fixation Point comes from the visual axis
31Accessory Organs: cont. Optic ChiasmFirst part of the brain to receive visual inputEach eye takes a slightly different picture of the world
33Neurons Ganglion Cells Located near the inner surface of the retina of the eye.Receives visual information from photoreceptors via 2 intermediate neuron types: Bipolar and Amacrine cells.Amacrine CellsConsidered a supplement to the action of horizontal cellsHorizontal CellsAllows eyes to adjust to the bright and dim lights around themBipolar CellsTransmit signals from the photoreceptors to the ganglion cellsRefer to picture
34Neurons: cont. Pigment Epithelium Rods/Cons Shields the retina from excess incoming lightRods/ConsAKA PhotoreceptorsFound in the retina.Convert light into signals that can stimulate biological processes.
35Cranial Nerves (involved with sight) Optic (II)SensorySensory fibers transmit impulses associated with sense of visionOculomotor (III)Motor fibers transmit impulses to muscles that raise eyelids, move the eyes, adjust amount of light that enters the eye, and focuses the lenses
36Cranial Nerves cont. Trochlear (IV) Opthalmic Abducens (VI) Motor fibers transmit impulses to muscles that move the eyesOpthalmicSensory fibers transmit impulses from the surfaces of the eyes, tear glands, upper eyelids, etc.Abducens (VI)Motor fibers transmit impulses to the muscles that move the eys
37Visual ReceptorsVisual receptor cells are a layer of rods and cones (the photoreceptor cells I mentioned earlier) that aid in visual inside of retinaEach rod or cone contains a pigment that absorbs a certain type of wavelength better than othersWHAT??!! I don’t get what you wroteIll change it lolBetter?--Kinda but it seems to “chill”..
38Refraction Makes image formation possible When light travels through the lens it’s path is bent or refracted.The eye itself, sees an image upside down but the signal to the brain flips it right side up.You don’t think she will want more detail than this? Idk just a thought--I think ill probably speak for this.. Plus I just added a bullet ^^^
39Pigments Iodopsin Rhodopsin a violet light-sensitive pigment in the cones of the retina of the eye that is responsible for color visionThe pigment sensitive to red light in the retinal rods of the eyes, consisting of opsin and retinene. Also called visual purple
40Dark VS Light Vision Dark Light Rods are responsible Only can tell between black and white shade.Provides enhanced sensitivityCons are responsibleEyes can see best inResponsible for color and fine detail.Goes with retina… plus I don’t understand your notes o.o
41Convergent VS Divergent Waves Convergent WavesDivergent WavesEyes begin to look inwardAKA Crossed EyedEyes begin to look outwardAKA Lazy Eye
42Stereoscopic Vision AKA Binocular Vision Provides information to the brain to find the depth of the visual scene which is also known as 3D sight