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2015. 03. 06 1 Soon no radio quiet zone on Earth will be free from strong, man-made signals from the sky!!!

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Presentation on theme: "2015. 03. 06 1 Soon no radio quiet zone on Earth will be free from strong, man-made signals from the sky!!!"— Presentation transcript:

1 Soon no radio quiet zone on Earth will be free from strong, man-made signals from the sky!!!

2 Science Services Why PROTECION How Free from Interference Radio Astronomy

3 EESS RAS Deep Space Time Science Services SRS

4 Sharing and Protection Scenarios  Part IWHY?  Part IIInternational Organization  Part IIIDomestic Activities  Part IV WRC-15 Issues

5 Before Presentation Freedom is not FREE Freedom is not FREE Our DUTY protect RAS from harmful interference FIGHT and share with other Active Services Our RIGHT Free From man-made interference  RAS = passive service

6 다양한 인공전파 간섭원

7 꼭 알아두어야 할 암호 몇 가지  Frequency Allocations Table International & National Allocation  Primary & Secondary Service  Footnote & 5.149, 5.562D  ITU-R, SG, WP, WRC, CPM, APG  Protection & Sharing/ RFI  Passive service, Active service, RAS

8  ARTICLE 1  Terms and definitions (section 3) 1.58radio astronomy service: A service involving the use of radio astronomy. Historically RAS was restricted to ground-based one. Now RAS includes space-based observations. Radio Astronomy Service

9  Passive services - RAS, EESS(passive), SRS(passive)  Active services - All radiocommunication applications Passive & Active Service

10  ARTICLE 1  Terms and definitions 1.13 radio astronomy: Astronomy based on the reception of rad io waves of cosmic origin 1.5 radio waves or hertzian waves: Electromagnetic waves of frequencies arbitrarily lower than GHz, propagated in space without artificial guide. Radio Astronomy in Radio Regulations

11 Primary and secondary services 5.25a)services the names of which are printed in “capitals” (example: FIXED); these are called “primary” services; 5.26b)services the names of which are printed in “normal characters” (example: Mobile); these are called “secondary” services (see Nos to 5.31) )Additional remarks shall be printed in normal characters (example: MOBILE except aeronautical mobile). Primary & Secondary Services

12 )Stations of a secondary service: 5.29a)shall not cause harmful interference to stations of primary services to which frequencies are already assigned or to which frequencies may be assigned at a later date; 5.30b)cannot claim protection from harmful interference from stations of a primary service to which frequencies are already assigned or may be assigned at a later date; 5.31c)can claim protection, however, from harmful interference from stations of the same or other secondary service(s) to which frequencies may be assigned at a later date. Primary & Secondary Services

13 Allocation to services Region 1Region 2Region EARTH EXPLORATION-SATELLITE (passive) RADIO ASTRONOMY SPACE RESEARCH (passive) FIXED MOBILE RADIO ASTRONOMY RADIOLOCATION EARTH EXPLORATION-SATELLITE (active) RADIOLOCATION SPACE RESEARCH (active) Radio astronomy A FIXED MOBILE RADIO ASTRONOMY RADIOLOCATION footnotes Primary alloc. Secondary alloc. Current Frequency Alocations

14 In making assignments to stations of other services to which the bands kHz, kHz, MHz, MHz in Regions 1 and 3, MHz in Region 1, MHz, MHz, MHz in Regions 1 and 3, MHz, MHz, MHz, MHz, MHz, MHz, MHz, MHz, MHz, MHz, MHz, MHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz in Regions 1 and 3, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz are allocated, administrations are urged to take all practicable steps to protect the radio astronomy service from harmful interference. Emissions from spaceborne or airborne stations can be particularly serious sources of interference to the radio astronomy service (see Nos. 4.5 and 4.6 and Article 29). (WRC ‑ 07) Important Footnote for RAS

15 Important Footnote for RAS 5.340All emissions are prohibited in the following bands: MHz, MHz,except those provided for by No , GHz,except those provided for by No , GHz,except those provided for by No , GHz, GHz, GHz,in Region 2, GHz,from airborne stations GHz2, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz. (WRC ‑ 03)

16 Allocation > 275 GHz  No allocation at present (only footnote 5.565)  Revision of FN – WRC-2012 agenda item 1.6 (up to 3000 GHz)

17 May 31, 20103rd IUCAF Summer Sch ool,Tokyo 17

18  5.565The following frequency bands in the range GHz are identified for use by administrations for passive service applications:  –radio astronomy service: GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz and GHz;  –Earth exploration-satellite service (passive) and space research service (passive): GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz, GHz and GHz.  The use of the range GHz by the passive services does not preclude use of this range by active services. Administrations wishing to make frequencies in the GHz range available for active service applications are urged to take all practicable steps to protect these passive services from harmful interference until the date when the Table of Frequency Allocations is established in the above-mentioned GHz frequency range.  All frequencies in the range GHz may be used by both active and passive services. (WRC ‑ 12)

19 전파천문업무 분배현황

20 Final Goals for Freedom Challenge and Change - Domestic and International Activities (Technical studies and Political Actions) - Needs for a Good Relationship with -Government Peoples and Active Services  Modify International Radio Regulations  Modify Domestic radio Law  Protect & Sharing Studies for Passive-Active services

21 21 Frequency allocations (ALMA 1-6)

22 22 ALMA Bands from 7 to 10 The following frequency bands in the range GHz are identified for use by administrations for passive service applications Administrations wishing to make frequencies in the GHz range available for active service applications are urged to take all practicable steps to protect these passive services from harmful interference until the date when the Table of Frequency Allocations is established in the above-mentioned GHz frequency range

23 What can WE do for Protection & Sharing Activities What can WE do for Protection & Sharing Activities Technical Studies - Domestic Activities (Korea ITU-R) - International Activities : ITU-R (SG7, WP7D), CPM (Conference Preparatory Meeting for WRC) Political Activities - Domestic Activities (Korea WRC-15 WG2) - International Activities : WRC (per 3-4 year) : regional meetings(APG, RAFCAP, IUCAF)-/year

24 WARC-79 WRC WRC -20xx Below 20 GHz Above 20 GHz GHz History of RAS Allocation Radio Regulations Update GHz 20 yrs

25 Sharing and Protection Scenarios  Part IWHY?  Part IIInternational Organization  Part IIIDomestic Activities  Part IV WRC-15 Issues

26 RAS Allocations notes  Usual mixture of Primary (P) and Secondary (S) allocations May vary between ITU-R regions  Most adjacent bands are allocated to active services No margin of protection Out of band emissions from adjacent or even distant bands  Other co-primary allocations Sometimes with active services  Passive primary bands P(passive) Allocations only to passive services All emissions are prohibited! Footnote But difficult to protect in practice.. What level is “no emission”?

27 RAS Allocation Summary  < 30 GHz: 1.3% primary exclusive for passive frequency use 1.2% primary shared allocations 0.5% secondary allocations  GHz: 16.8% primary exclusive for passive frequency use 38.3% primary shared allocations 5.1% secondary allocations  All frequency bands <275 GHz: 15.1% primary exclusive for passive frequency use 34.2% primary shared allocations 4.6% secondary allocations

28 Allocations Table - Article 5 - Example  Co-primary allocations; Adjacent bands; OoB emissions  Primary RAS allocation  Footnotes relevant to RAS RAS footnote 

29 Where are the RA bands ? SUMMARY TABLE: Frequency Bands(MHz)Frequency Bands(GHz) (HI) (OH) (OH) (H 2 CO) – (H 2 CO) (H 2 O) (NH 3 ) (SiO)

30 Details of RAS Allocations – from RAS Handbook Frequency range (MHz) (1) Status (2) Comments (3) P P (Pas) S PRegion PRegion 1, Australia, India PDeuterium line P PChina and the African broadcasting area PSPS Region 2, India, China and the African broadcasting area Regions 1 (except the African broadcasting area) and P (Pas)Hydrogen line POH line POH lines SOH line S P (Pas) SH 2 CO line; MHz and MHz are primary in Argentina, Australia and Canada P

31 Frequency range (GHz) (1) Status (2) Comments (3) P P (Pas) SH 2 CO lines P (Pas) PH 2 O lines P (Pas)NH 3 lines P (Pas) PPassive in Region PSiO lines PCS line P S P P (Pas)SiO lines PNH 2 + line S PCS line

32 P (Pas) P P (Pas)CO lines PCO line P (Pas)CO line S P S PCS line P (Pas) P P (Pas) P (Pas)H 2 O line P (Pas) PCO lines P (Pas)CO line PCS lines S P (Pas) PHCN, HCO + lines

33 Footnote 5.562D for TRAO & KVN Allocation to services Region 1Region 2Region GHzFIXED-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) MOBILE-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) RADIONAVIGATION RADIONAVIGATION-SATELLITE Radio astronomy 5.562D EARTH EXPLORATION-SATELLITE (active) 5.562E FIXED INTER-SATELLITE MOBILE RADIO ASTRONOMY A 5.562DAdditional allocation: In Korea (Rep. of), the bands GHz, GHz, GHz and GHz are also allocated to the radio astronomy service on a primary basis until (WRC ‑ 2000)

34 Other example of RAS Footnote 5.551I The power flux-density in the band GHz produced by any geostationary space station in the fixed-satellite service (space-to-Earth), or the broadcasting-satellite service operating in the GHz band, shall not exceed the following values at the site of any radio astronomy station: –137 dB(W/m 2 ) in 1 GHz and –153 dB(W/m 2 ) in any 500 kHz of the GHz band at the site of any radio astronomy station registered as a single-dish telescope; and –116 dB(W/m 2 ) in any 500 kHz of the GHz band at the site of any radio astronomy station registered as a very long baseline interferometry station. These values shall apply at the site of any radio astronomy station that either: –was in operation prior to 5 July 2003 and has been notified to the Bureau before 4 January 2004; or –was notified before the date of receipt of the complete Appendix 4 information for coordination or notification, as appropriate, for the space station to which the limits apply. Other radio astronomy stations notified after these dates may seek an agreement with administrations that have authorized the space stations. In Region 2, Resolution 743 (WRC ‑ 03) shall apply. The limits in this footnote may be exceeded at the site of a radio astronomy station of any country whose administration so agreed. (WRC-03)

35  ITU is the leading United Nations agency for information and communication technology issues, and the global focal point for governments and the private sector in developing networks and services. For nearly 145 years, ITU has coordinated the shared global use of the radio spectrum. ITU also organizes worldwide and regional exhibitions and forums, such as WRC, bringing together the most influential representatives of government and the telecommunicationsUnited Nations  based in Geneva, Switzerland, 191 Member States and more than 700 Sector Members and Associates.Member StatesSector MembersAssociates What is ITU?

36 What is ITU?

37  Radiocommunication (ITU-R) Managing the international radio-frequency spectrum and satellite orbit resources is at the heart of the work of the ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R). Radiocommunication (ITU-R)  Standardization (ITU-T) ITU's standards-making efforts are its best-known — and oldest — activity. Standardization (ITU-T)  Development (ITU-D) Established to help spread equitable, sustainable and affordable access to information and communication technologies (ICT). Development (ITU-D) Three ITU Sectors

38 What is ITU?

39

40

41 한국천문연구원 정현수 한국천문연구원 정현수 ITU-R SG7 산하 working parties WP 7A - Time signals and frequency standard emissionsWP 7A - Time signals and frequency standard emissions WP 7B - Space radiocommunication applicationsWP 7B - Space radiocommunication applications WP 7C - Remote sensing systemsWP 7C - Remote sensing systems WP 7D - Radio astronomyWP 7D - Radio astronomy JTG WRC-15 AIs 1.1 and 1.2JTG WRC-15 AIs 1.1 and 1.2

42 WP7C-EESS WP7D -R AS WP7B- Deep Space WP7A- Time ITU-R SG7 작업반 WP7B-SRS

43 ITU-R SG7 HandBook Radio Astronomy Use of Radio Spectrum for Meteorology: Weather, Water and Climate Monitoring and PredictionUse of Radio Spectrum for Meteorology: Weather, Water and Climate Monitoring and Prediction Selection and Use of Precise Frequency and Time Systems Space Research Communications Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer and Dissemination Earth Exploration-Satellite Service

44 Radio Regulations (RR) The Radio Regulations (treaty status) incorporates the decisions of the World Radiocommunication Conferences, including all Appendices, Resolutions, Recommendations and ITU-R Recommendations incorporated by reference.

45 Frequency allocations  Article 5  5.2For the allocation of frequencies the world has been divided into three Regions 1 as shown on the following map and described in Nos. 5.3 to 5.9: 1  It should be noted that where the words “regions” or “regional” are without a capital “R” in these Regulations, they do not relate to the three Regions here defined for purposes of frequency allocation. 1

46 Regions 1, 2, 3 APT CEPT CITEL ATU RCC ASMG CORFCRAF RAFCAP

47 Fighting with Six Regional groups for WRC Regional Preparation Six regional groups: For the preparation of common and coordinated proposals

48 Regional preparation for WRC-15 CEPT (European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations) ATU (African Telecommunications Union) RC C (Regional Commonwealth in the Field of Communications ASMG (Arab Spectrum Management Group) CITEL (Inter-American Telecommunication Commission) APT (Asia-Pacific Telecommunity)

49 Worldwide RA frequency committees  IUCAF : IAU + URSI + COSPAR  Europe -- CRAF Committee for Radio Astronomy Frequencies  America -- CORF Committee on Radio Frequencies  Asia+Pacific region -- RAFCAP RAFCAP Radio Astronomy Frequency Committee in the Asia-Pacific region

50 IUCAF IUCAF’s place in the worldwide spectrum management circus COSPARCommittee on Space Research IAUInternational Astronomical Union URSIInternational Union of Radio Science CORFCommittee on Radio Frequencies (USA) CRAFCommittee on Radio Astronomical Frequencies (EUR) RAFCAP Radio Astronomy Frequency Committee in the Asia-Pacific Region ICSUInternational Council of Scientific Unions ITUInternational Telecommunication Union RARadiocommunication Assembly SG 7 Radiocommunication Study Group7 WRCWorld Radiocommunication Conference

51 Updates the Radio Regulations (treaty status) Spectrum Allocation Coordination and Notification procedures Administrative and operational procedures Adopts Resolutions Held every 3-4 years World Radiocommunication Conferences WRC RR

52 World Radiocommunication Conferences (WRC) WRC-07 ( ) -30 agenda items, 2500 proposal, 3000 del.! -almost all services (terrestrial: FS, MS, BS, Amat.S, RAS, RLS, space: FSS, BSS, MSS, EESS, SRS, SO, MetSat, Amat.Sat) -several applications: IMT, HAPS, HF, GMDSS WRC-12 ( – ) -33 agenda items, -again almost all services (terrestrial: RLS, AM(R)S, passive S, FS, BS, MS, Maritime MS, Amat.S, space: AMS(R)S, SRS, BSS, MSS, MetAids, RDSS, MetSat) and other issues (Res.951, SRDs, Cognitive Radio) -and many applications and systems : UAS, ENG, HAPS, oceanographic radar, …

53 Preparation for WRC-15

54 Preparation for WRC

55 nd Conference Preparatory Meeting (CPM)  7 month before WRC-15 (prepare CPM Report) RA(Radiocommunication Assembly, RA-12)  one week before WRC-15 Study of the WRC-15 agenda items ( ITU-R responsible groups (WPs/JTG) WRC-15 (Geneva, ) 31 July Mar. - 4 Apr Nov Oct Main steps toward WRC-15

56 WRC-15 회의 APG15-1 차 ITU-R 연구 의제별 입장개진 APG15-2 차 ITU-R 연 구 전반적의견 조율 APG15-3 차 CPM 보고서 초안 세부의견 조율 APG15-4, 5 차 CPM-15 2 차 CPM 및 WRC 대응 의제별 APG 기고서 General Schedules for WRC-15 전파규칙 제개정

57 Sharing and Protection Scenarios  Part IWHY?  Part IIInternational Organization  Part IIIDomestic Activities  Part IV WRC-15 Issues

58 Allocations and Protection  Allocations do not automatically mean protection!! Indicate permitted usage but more is needed in practice ITU Registration of RAS Telescopes  Only accepts registration in allocated bands  National allocations and licensing very important!! E.g. in Korea – have to take “Receive licenses” No fees & listed in national database  legal protection AUS87 provisions of “notification zones”  National sovereignty jealously guarded Can go against international allocations!  Provided no impact on neighbouring nations  China, Japan, All Satellites(GSO, NGSO)

59 Protection & Sharing Activities Related WPRelated issues Korea ITU-R SG7 ○ Science service ○ ITU-R WP7A, 7B, 7C, 7D Korea WRC-15 WG2 ○ WRC-15, APG-15, CPM-15 ○ WRC-15 AIs 1.11, 12, 13, 14, Other Study Group In KCC ○ AI 1.1 (IMT, 400MHz-10GHz) ○ 22-26GHz(AI 1.10), GHz (AI 1.18) ○ ㎒ (s-E), ㎒ (E-s) (FSS, AI 1.9) Korea ITU-R SG1 Korea WRC-07 WG1, 4 ○ other ITU-R issues and WRC-15 issues Major Domestic Activities

60 Protection & Sharing Activities Major International Activities

61 Structure of Korea ITU-R committee

62 Structure of WRC-15 Korea PG

63 Sharing and Protection Scenarios  Part IWHY?  Part IIInternational Organization  Part IIIDomestic Activities  Part IV WRC-15 Issues

64  1. Mobile and Amateur issues 1.  2. Science issues 2.  3.Aeronautical, Maritime and 3. Radiolocation issues  4. Satellite services 4.  5. Satellite Regulatory issues 5.  6. General issues 6. 2, 4, 9.1.4, 9.1.6, 9.1.7, , 1.2, 1.3, , 1.12, 1.13, 1.14, , 1.15, 1.16, 1.17, , 1.7, 1.8, ( 고정위성 ) 1.9.2, 1.10 ( 이동위성 ) 7, 9.1.1, 9.1.2, 9.1.3, 9.1.5, 9.3 Table of contents of the CPM Report to WRC-15

65 WRC-15 Related Issues ㎓ 대역에서 지구탐사위성업무 ( 지구대우주 ) 용 신규 주파수 분배 연구 WP7B 항우연 1.12 지구탐사위성업무용 SAR 연속 600 ㎒ 대역 분배 연구 ( ㎒ 대역 내 ) WP7C 항우연 천문연 1.13 우주선 근거리통신용 관련 전파규칙 규정 재검토 (5KM 거리 제한 삭제 ) ( MHz) WP7B 1.14 세계협정시 (UTC) 개정 또는 대처방안 연구 WP7A 표준연 천문연 나노 위성 및 피코 위성 규제 관련 연구 WP7B 항우연

66 Other WRC-15 Related Issues 1.1 모바일 광대역 응용 실현을 위한 이동통신업무 추가 분배 및 IMT 추가 지정 연구 (400 ㎒ -10 ㎓ ) 천문연 ㎒ ( 우주대지구 ), ㎒ ( 지구대 우주 ) 에서 FSS 추가 분배연구 항우연 기상청 ㎓ 대역내 이동위성업무 추가 주파수 분배 검토 천문연 ㎓ 대역에서 차량안전운행을 위한 근거리 고해 상도 레이더용 주파수 분배 연구 천문연

67 Footnote 5.562D for TRAO & KVN Allocation to services Region 1Region 2Region GHzFIXED-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) MOBILE-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) RADIONAVIGATION RADIONAVIGATION-SATELLITE Radio astronomy 5.562D EARTH EXPLORATION-SATELLITE (active) 5.562E FIXED INTER-SATELLITE MOBILE RADIO ASTRONOMY A 5.562DAdditional allocation: In Korea (Rep. of), the bands GHz, GHz, GHz and GHz are also allocated to the radio astronomy service on a primary basis until (WRC ‑ 2000)

68 년 2.9( 월 )-2.14( 토 ), 방콕 APG15-4 차회의 3.23( 월 )-04.02( 목 ), 제네바 CPM-15 2 차 회의 5.20( 수 )-5.28( 목 ), 제네바 SG 7 총회 및 WP7A, 7B, 7C, 7D 회의 7.27( 월 )-8.1( 토 ), 서울 APG15-5 차회의 11.2( 월 )-11.27( 금 ), 제네바 WRC-15 회의 2015 년 주요 표준화 국제회의 일정

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