8 Theory of Island Biogeography Relation of number of species and area S = C A Z S: Number of species A: Area of the island MacAurthur & Wilson Z = 0.24 ~ 0.34 Theory !
9 Relation of number of species and area S = C A Z Theory ! Z KM = 0.324 (Kinmen) Theory of Island Biogeography
10 Density of species for each half = 0.8/0.5 =1.6 Theory ! Theory of Island Biogeography
11 Road typeConcrete Asphalt Concrete Unpaved Tank Driveway Total Length129.9214.418.27.3369.8 Total length of serving roads in Kinmen (unit: km) Theory !
12 Population (Thousand) Area (km 2 ) Total length of road system (km) Number of vehicles (Thousand) Vehicle/Total length of roads Vehicle per capita Road density (km/km 2 ) Kinmen61150.5343.913.037.80.21 2.29 Taiwan (Non- metropolitan) 22,610 (overall) 34,81820,102 6,134 (overall) 160.6 (overall) 0.27 (overall) 0.58 Taiwan (overall) 36,18838,202 1.06 Okinawa, Japan 1,3522,2711,455552379.40.41 0.64 Netherlands16,19333,920114,4277,89469.00.49 3.37 USA292,9369,372,6146,297,966230,42836.60.79 0.67 Roads density in different areas Theory !
13 Ideal Road density in continent areas Studies and field investigations showed that the highest road density wolves can tolerant to maintain their healthy population is ρ wolf = 0.6 km/km 2 Why? Theory !
15 Ideal Road density for Kinmen What is the ideal road density for Kinmen ? Three models: 1.Direct application of ρ= 0.6 km/km 2 2.Model island model 3.Largest small island model Model !
16 Model island model Take Okinawa as a model island to Kinmen S k is number of species of Kinmen S O is number of species of same taxon in Okinawa Z = 0.324 n = 0.41 Model !
17 Model island model the density of species in Kinmen D Model !
18 Model island model Unit cell Roads Road Density Model ! Road Mesh
19 Model island model The road density of Okinawa is ρ O =0.64 km/km 2 that leads to L=3.125 km and the area of the unit cell is then (A O ) =L 2 = 9.766 km 2 To make same species density in Kinmen, enlarging the area of unit cell to 6.2 times for Kinmen ’ s is necessary. Model !
20 Model island model Therefore the area of Kinmen’s unit cell is (A K ) ＝ 6.2 × 9.766 ＝ 60.55 km 2. and length of the cell L K = (A K ) 1/2 = 7.78 km. The ideal road density of Kinmen could be obtained as ρ KM = 2/L K = 2/7.78 = 0.257 km/km 2 Model !
21 Largest small island model Take Largest small island as a model island to Kinmen Largest small island Area = 1,000 km 2 Population = 1,000,000 Follow the same procedure, we have ρ KM = 0.316 km/km 2 Model !
22 Ideal Road density for Kinmen ? Model123 Kinmen Current Obtained Road Density ρ KM (km/km 2 ) 0.600.2570.3162.290 Results !
23 Transportation Policy of Kinmen ? Discussions !
24 Three Principles of Road Construction 1. Avoidance Stop building roads, Remove roads, Put roads underground, Change the routes 2. Mitigation Make animal corridors, Reduce noises and disturbance, Use ecological friendly construction materials, Use cleaner fuel 3. Compensation Create protected areas, Restore destructed habitats, Enhance habitat conditions Discussions !