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National Environmental Research Institute - DENMARK Department of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity RECOMMENDATION FOR GOOD ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE INTO.

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Presentation on theme: "National Environmental Research Institute - DENMARK Department of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity RECOMMENDATION FOR GOOD ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE INTO."— Presentation transcript:

1 National Environmental Research Institute - DENMARK Department of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity RECOMMENDATION FOR GOOD ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE INTO OFFSHORE WIND DEVELOPMENT Ib Krag Petersen, Tony Fox, Mark Desholm, Johnny Kahlert and Thomas Kjær Christensen Dept. of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity National Environmental Research Institute University of Aarhus, Denmark

2 National Environmental Research Institute - DENMARK Department of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity Shorebird Flyways

3 National Environmental Research Institute - DENMARK Department of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity

4 National Environmental Research Institute - DENMARK Department of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity Defining the problem Which are the key species? What are the hazards? How can we assess the local effects?

5 National Environmental Research Institute - DENMARK Department of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity Those for which the area is important at some stage in the annual life cycle Those which enjoy special protection measures Those that are for some reason vulnerable to development Those showing characteristics that make them vulnerable to windfarms Those that exhibit high annual adult survival and low reproductive output Most emphasis therefore on long-lived waterbirds Which are the key species?

6 National Environmental Research Institute - DENMARK Department of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity What are the hazards? Avoidance response: - Displacement to movement (lateral)

7 National Environmental Research Institute - DENMARK Department of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity What are the hazards? Avoidance response: - Displacement to movement (altitudinal)

8 National Environmental Research Institute - DENMARK Department of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity What are the hazards? Avoidance response: - Effective habitat loss

9 National Environmental Research Institute - DENMARK Department of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity What are the hazards? Avoidance response: - Effective habitat loss

10 National Environmental Research Institute - DENMARK Department of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity What are the hazards? Habitat loss/gain - less than 1% of the total area

11 National Environmental Research Institute - DENMARK Department of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity What are the hazards? Collision rate

12 National Environmental Research Institute - DENMARK Department of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity What are the hazards? Avoidance response: - Displacement to movement - Effective habitat loss Habitat loss/gain Collision rate

13 National Environmental Research Institute - DENMARK Department of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity measure flight trajectories in 3 dimension space compared pre- and post- construction flight trajectories Displacement of movement

14 National Environmental Research Institute - DENMARK Department of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity autumn migration of land birds autumn migration of waterbirds spring migration of waterbirds Displacement of movement

15 National Environmental Research Institute - DENMARK Department of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity Displacement of movement

16 National Environmental Research Institute - DENMARK Department of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity Habitat loss/gain Behavioural response (effective habitat loss) Physical habitat loss (under foundations and anti-scour) Physical habitat gain (foundations and anti- scour)

17 National Environmental Research Institute - DENMARK Department of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity Habitat loss/gain

18 National Environmental Research Institute - DENMARK Department of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity Wind farm area 2 km strip outside Area 2-4 km outside Habitat loss/gain

19 National Environmental Research Institute - DENMARK Department of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity Habitat loss/gain Encounter Map (example Common Scoter at Horns Rev) Density surface (example Common Scoter at Horns Rev Displacment effect (example Common Scoter at Horns Rev)

20 National Environmental Research Institute - DENMARK Department of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity Pre-construction modelling Post construction monitoring (“validation”) Collision rate

21 National Environmental Research Institute - DENMARK Department of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity Pre-construction modelling Collision rate

22 National Environmental Research Institute - DENMARK Department of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity Pre-construction modelling Migration volume Transition rates Wind direction Flight altitude By chance passing rate Collision rate

23 National Environmental Research Institute - DENMARK Department of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity Pre-construction modelling Collision rate

24 National Environmental Research Institute - DENMARK Department of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity Collision rate Thermal Animal Detection System (TADS)

25 National Environmental Research Institute - DENMARK Department of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity Post construction monitoring Collision rate

26 National Environmental Research Institute - DENMARK Department of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity VISUAL STIMULUS – AVOIDANCE RESPONSE PHYSICAL HABITAT LOSS/MODIFICATION COLLISION MORTALITY Changes to overall population size Hazard factor Physical effects Ecological effects Energetic costs Fitness consequences Population impacts B1. Displacement from ideal feeding distribution B2. “Effective” habitat loss B3. Reduced energy intake rates and/or increased energy expenditure C1. Destruction of feeding habitat under foundations/ anti-scour structures C2. “Physical” habitat loss A1. Barriers to movement (migration, feeding flights, etc.) A2. Increased flight distances A3. Enhanced energy consumption A4. Changes to annual breeding output and survival E1. Birds collide with rotors or other structures, or mortally injured by air turbulence E4. Reduced survival D1. Creation of novel habitats on foundations anti-scour structures D2. “Physical” habitat gain D3. Enhanced energy intake rates and/or decreased energy expenditure

27 National Environmental Research Institute - DENMARK Department of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity BEST PRACTICE? Strategic overview that facilitate overall site selection for offshore wind farm development The EIA process address the situation for a specific site Post-construction monitoring will quantify predictions from EIA’s and generate generic results for the general public Cumulative effects need to be managed by a more general body than the individual EIA process.

28 National Environmental Research Institute - DENMARK Department of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity Thank you for your attention


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