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Presentation on theme: "CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS and CONCRETE"— Presentation transcript:


2 GOALS To give brief information about
Concrete-properties,production,composition Cement-types of cement,mostly used cement Construction Materials-mostly used ones. To give ideas about how presentation is made To upgrade our skills on making presentation

3 Outline CONCRETE 1-What is concrete? 2-Composition of concrete Water
Aggregates Reinforcement Chemical admixtures Cement 3-Concrete production Mixing Concrete Workability Curing

4 Outline continued References 4-Properties of Concrete
5-Types of Concrete 6-Concrete Testing 7-Concrete Recycling CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS Asphalt Aggregate Brick Gypsum References

Construction material Mixture of portland cement, water, aggregates, and in some cases, admixtures. The cement and water form a paste that hardens and bonds the aggregates together. Often looked upon as “man made rock”. Versatile construction material, adaptable to a wide variety of agricultural and residential uses. Strong, durable, versatile, and economical.

6 CONCRETE Can be placed or molded into virtually any shape and reproduce any surface texture. The most widely used construction material in the world. In the United States almost twice as much concrete is used as all other construction materials combined. The ready-mix concrete producer has made concrete an appropriate construction material for many applications.

7 Composition of concrete
Water Aggregates Chemical admixtures Cement

8 WATER Good water is essential for quality concrete.
Should be good enough to drink--free of trash, organic matter and excessive chemicals and/or minerals. The strength and other properties of concrete are highly dependent on the amount of water and the water-cement ratio.

9 AGGREGATES Aggregates occupy 60 to 80 percent of the
volume of concrete. Sand, gravel and crushed stone are the primary aggregates used. All aggregates must be essentially free of silt and/or organic matter.

10 CHEMİCAL ADMİXTURES Materials in the form of powder or fluids that are added to the concrete to give it certain characteristics not obtainable with plain concrete mixes. In normal use, admixture dosages are less than 5% by mass of cement, and are added to the concrete at the time of batching/mixing.

11 CHEMİCAL ADMİXTURES The most common types of admixtures are:
Accelerators : - Speed up the hydration (hardening) of the concrete. - Typical materials used are CaCl2 and NaCl. Acrylic retarders : -Slow the hydration of concrete, and are used in large or difficult pours. - Typical retarder is table sugar, or sucrose (C12H22O11).

12 CHEMICAL ADMIXTURES Air Entraining agents:
-The most commonly used admixtures for agricultural concrete. -Produce microscopic air bubbles throughout the concrete. -Entrained air bubbles: Improve the durability of concrete exposed to moisture and freeze/thaw action. Improve resistance to scaling from deicers and corrosive agents such as manure or silage.

13 CHEMICAL ADMIXTURES Water-reducing admixtures
-Increase the workability of plastic or "fresh" concrete, allowing it be placed more easily, with less consolidating effort. -High-range water-reducing admixtures are a class of water-reducing admixtures Increase workability Reduce the water content of a concrete. Improves its strength and durability characteristics.

14 REINFORCEMENT Strong in compression, as the aggregate efficiently carries the compression load. Weak in tension as the cement holding the aggregate in place can crack, allowing the structure to fail. Reinforced concrete solves these problems by adding either metal reinforcing bars, steel fibers, glass fiber, or plastic fiber to carry tensile loads.

15 CEMENT Crystalline compound of calcium silicates and other calcium compounds having hydraulic properties. Considered hydraulic because of their ability to set and harden under or with excess water through the hydration of the cement’s chemical compounds or minerals

16 CEMENT Uses Main use is in the fabrication of concrete and mortars
Modern uses -Building (floors, beams, columns, roofing, piles, bricks, mortar, panels, plaster) -Transport (roads, pathways, crossings, bridges, viaducts, tunnels, parking, etc.) -Water (pipes, drains, canals, dams, tanks, pools, etc.) -Civil (piers, docks, retaining walls, silos, warehousing, poles, pylons, fencing) -Agriculture (buildings, processing, housing, irrigation)

Hydraulic lime: Only used in specialized mortars. Made from calcination of clay-rich limestones. Natural cements: Misleadingly called Roman. It is made from argillaceous limestones or interbedded limestone and clay or shale, with few raw materials. Because they were found to be inferior to portland, most plants switched. Portland cement: Artificial cement. Made by the mixing clinker with gypsum in a 95:5 ratio.

18 CEMENT Portland-limestone cements: Large amounts (6% to 35%) of ground limestone have been added as a filler to a portland cement base. Blended cements: Mix of portland cement with one or more SCM (supplementary cemetitious materials) like pozzolanic additives. Pozzolan-lime cements: Original Roman cements. Only a small quantity is manufactured in the U.S. Mix of pozzolans with lime.

19 CEMENT Masonry cements: Portland cement where other materials have been added primarily to impart plasticity. Aluminous cements: Limestones and bauxite are the main raw materials. Used for refractory applications (such as cementing furnace bricks) and certain applications where rapid hardening is required. It is more expensive than portland. There is only one producing facility in the U.S.

20 PORTLAND CEMENT Most active component of concrete
The greatest unit cost in concrete, Its selection and proper use are important in obtaining most economically the balance of properties desired for any particular concrete mixture.

21 PORTLAND CEMENT The production process for portland cement first involves grinding limestone or chalk and alumina and silica from shale or clay. Type I/II portland cements are the most popular cements used by concrete producers -Type I cement is the general purpose cement and most common type. Unless an alternative is specified, Type I is usually used. -Type II cement releases less heat during hardening. It is more suitable for projects involving large masses of concrete--heavy retaining walls

22 Types of Portland cement
Cement type Use I1 General purpose cement, when there are no extenuating conditions II2 Aids in providing moderate resistance to sulfate attack III When high-early strength is required IV3 When a low heat of hydration is desired (in massive structures) V4 When high sulfate resistance is required IA4 A type I cement containing an integral air-entraining agent IIA4 A type II cement containing an integral air-entraining agent IIIA4 A type III cement containing an integral air-entraining agent

23 PORTLAND CEMENT Physical Properties of Portland Cements Fineness,
Soundness Consistency Setting time Compressive strength Heat of hydration Loss of ignition

24 Concrete production A properly proportioned concrete mix will provide
This process develops physical and chemical properties like mechanical strength, low moisture permeability, and chemical and volumetric stability. A properly proportioned concrete mix will provide Mixing concrete Workability Curing

25 Mixing concrete Essential for The production of uniform concrete,
High quality concrete. Equipment and methods should be capable of effectively mixing

26 Workability The ease with which freshly mixed concrete can be placed and finished without segregation. Difficult to measure but ready-mix companies usually have experience in determining the proper mix. Important to accurately describe what the concrete is to be used for, and how it will be placed.

27 Curing Concrete that has been specified, batched, mixed, placed, and finished "letter-perfect" can still be a failure if improperly or inadequately cured. Usually the last step in a concrete project and, unfortunately, is often neglected even by professionals.

28 Curing Curing has a major influence on the properties of hardened concrete such as durability, strength, water-tightness, wear resistance, volume stability, and resistance to freezing and thawing. Proper concrete curing for agricultural and residential applications involves keeping newly placed concrete moist and avoiding temperature extremes (above 90°F or below 50°F) for at least three days. A seven-day (or longer) curing time is recommended.

29 Curing The best curing method depends on: Cost,
Application equipment required, Materials available, Size and shape of the concrete surface. Prevent the loss of the mixing water from concrete by sealing the surface. Can be done by: Covering the concrete with impervious paper or plastic sheets, Applying membrane-forming curing compounds.

30 Curing Begin the curing as soon as the concrete has hardened sufficiently to avoid erosion or other damage to the freshly finished surface. Usually within one to two hours after placement and finishing.

31 Properties of concrete
Strength Elasticity Cracking Shrinkage cracking Tension cracking

32 Strength Concrete has relatively High compressive strength,
Low tensile strength Fair to assume that a concrete sample's tensile strength is about 10%-15% of its compressive strength The ultimate strength of concrete is influenced by - water-cementitious ratio -the design constituents - the mixing -placement -curing methods

33 Elasticity Function of the modulus of elasticity of the aggregates and the cement matrix and their relative proportions The American Concrete Institute allows the modulus of elasticity to be calculated using the following equation: where wc = weight of concrete (pounds per cubic foot) and where f'c = compressive strength of concrete at 28 days (psi)

34 Cracking All concrete structures will crack to some extent.
Cracks due to tensile stress induced by shrinkage or stresses occurring during setting or use

35 Shrinkage cracking Occur when concrete members undergo restrained volumetric changes (shrinkage) as a result of either drying, autogenous shrinkage or thermal effects. The number and width of shrinkage cracks that develop are influenced by -the amount of shrinkage that occurs -the amount of restraint present -the amount and spacing of reinforcement provided.

36 Tension cracking Most common in concrete beams where a transversely applied load will put one surface into compression and the opposite surface into tension due to induced bending. The size and length of cracks is dependent on - The magnitude of the bending moment - The design of the reinforcing in the beam at the point under consideration.

37 Types of concrete Regular concrete High-strength concrete
Stamped concrete High-performance concrete Self-consolidating concretes Vacuum concretes Shotcrete Pervious concrete Cellular concrete, Cork-cement composites Roller-compacted concrete Glass concrete Asphalt concrete Rapid strength concrete Rubberized concrete Polymer concrete Geopolymer or green concrete Limecrete Refractory Cement Concrete cloth Innovative mixtures Gypsum concrete

38 Compression testing of a concrete cylinder
Concrete testing Compression testing of a concrete cylinder Same cylinder after failure

39 General test methods Compaction Factor Test (Compacting Factor Test, Glanville) Compaction Test Free Orifice Test (Orimet Test) K-Slump Tester Free Flow Test Methods Slump Test Modified Slump Test Slump Rate Machine Kelly Ball Test Ring Penetration Test Cone Penetration Test Moving Sphere Viscometer Flow Trough Test Delivery-Chute Torque Meter Delivery-Chute Depth Meter Surface Settlement Test

40 Concrete recycling increasingly common method of disposing of concrete structures recycling is increasing due to -improved environmental awareness - governmental laws -economic benefits Recycling concrete provides -environmental benefits -conserving landfill space

41 Construction materials
Asphalt Aggregate Brick Gypsum

42 ASPHALT Also known as bitumen Dark brown to black Highly viscous
Hydrocarbon produced from petroleum distillation residue.  At least 80% carbon, which explains its deep black color. Sulphur is another ingredient. Primarily used as a sealant for rooftops and a durable surface for roads, airport runways, playgrounds and parking lots.

43 ASPHALT Asphalt can be separated from the other components in crude oil By the process of fractional distillation, usually under vacuum conditions.

44 TYPES OF ASPHALT The major types of asphalt used in construction are ;
Rolled asphalt Mastic asphalt.

45 Rolled Asphalt Made of aggregate, or solid materials such as sand, gravel, or recycled concrete, with an asphalt binder. Used to make roads and other surfaces, such as parking lots, by being applied in layers and compacted. Different types of rolled asphalt are distinguished according to the process used to bind the aggregate with the asphalt.

Hot mix asphalt concrete (HMAC) - Produced at 160 degrees Celsius. -This high temperature serves to decrease viscosity and moisture during the manufacturing process, resulting in a very durable material. -HMAC is most commonly used for high-traffic areas, such as busy highways and airports.

47 ROLLED ASPHALT Warm mix asphalt concrete (WAM or WMA)
-Reduces the temperature required for manufacture by adding asphalt emulsions, waxes, or zeolites. -Benefits both the environment and the workers, as it results in less fossil fuel consumption and reduced emission of fumes.

48 ROLLED ASPHALT Cold mix asphalt concrete,
-Emulsified in soapy water before mixing it with the aggregate, eliminating the need for high temperatures altogether. -The asphalt produced is not nearly as durable as HMAC or WAM -Typically used for low traffic areas or to patch damaged HMAC.

49 ROLLED ASPHALT Cut-back asphalt concrete
-Illegal in the United states since the 1970s, but many other countries around the world still use it. -The least environmentally friendly option, resulting in significantly more air pollution than the other forms. -Made by dissolving the asphalt binder in kerosene beforemixing it with the aggregate, reducing viscosity while the concrete is layered and compacted.

50 MASTIC ASPHALT Also called sheet asphalt.
Lower bitumen content than the rolled asphalt. Used for some roads and footpaths. Used also in roofing and flooring .

51 MASTIC ASPHALT Stone mastic asphalt (SMA), is another variety.
Becoming increasingly popular as an alternative to rolled asphalt. Benefits include -Anti-skid property -The absence of air pockets But if laid improperly -May cause slippery road conditions.

Durability -  A measure of how asphalt binder physical properties change with age. - Sometimes called age hardening .  - In general, as an asphalt binder ages, its viscosity increases and it becomes more stiff and brittle.

Rheology  The study of deformation and flow of matter.  Deformation and flow of the asphalt binder in HMA is important in HMA performance.  HMA pavements that deform and flow too much may be susceptible to rutting and bleeding, while those that are too stiff may be susceptible to fatigue cracking. 

Safety Asphalt cement like most other materials, volatilizes (gives off vapor) when heated.  Flash point. For safety reasons, the flash point of asphalt cement is tested and controlled. Purity.  Asphalt cement, as used in HMA paving, should consist of almost pure bitumen.  Impurities are not active cementing constituents and may be harmful to asphalt performance. 

55 AGGREGATE Collective term for sand, gravel and crushed stone mineral materials in their natural or processed state Roads and highways constitute the largest single use of aggregate at 40 percent of the total

Can either be natural or manufactured Natural aggregates are generally extracted from larger rock formations through an open excavation Manufactured rock typically consists of industrial byproducts such as slag (byproduct of the metallurgical processing – typically produced from processing steel, tin and copper) Specialty rock that is produced to have a particular physical characteristic not found in natural rock (such as the low density of lightweight aggregate). 

Toughness and abrasion resistance.  Aggregates should be hard and tough enough to resist crushing, degradation and disintegration from activities such as  manufacturing, stockpiling, production, placing and compaction.  Durability and soundness.  Aggregates must be resistant to breakdown and disintegration from weathering (wetting/drying) or else they may break apart and cause premature pavement distress. 

58 Particle shape and surface texture
Particle shape and surface texture.  Particle shape and surface texture are important for proper compaction, load resistance and workability.  Generally, cubic angular-shaped particles with a rough surface texture are best.  Specific gravity.  Aggregate specific gravity is useful in making weight-volume conversions and in calculating the void content in compacted Hot Mixed Asphalt Cleanliness and deleterious materials.  Aggregates must be relatively clean when used in HMA.  Vegetation, soft particles, clay lumps, excess dust and vegetable matter may affect performance by quickly degrading, which causes a loss of structural support and/or prevents binder-aggregate bonding

59 GYPSUM Occurs in nature as : - flattened
- often twinned crystals - transparent cleavable masses called selenite. May also occur in a silky, fibrous form, in which case it is commonly called satin spar. Finally may also be granular or quite compact. In hand-sized samples. Can be transparent or opaque.

60 OCCURRENCE GYPSUM A common mineral, with thick and extensive evaporite beds in association with sedimentary rocks. Gypsum is deposited in lake and sea water. Hydrothermal anhydrite in veins is commonly hydrated to gypsum by groundwater in near surface exposures. Often associated with the minerals halite and sulfur.

61 USES OF GYPSUM Gypsum Board primarily used as a finish for walls and ceilings; known in construction slang as Drywall Plaster ingredient. A component of Portland cement used to prevent flash setting of concrete.

62 BRICK Masonry unit Does not infer any particular material
About %90 of UK, bricks made from some form of clay. %8 of UK bricks made of concrete crushed rock aggregate and portland cement are main constituents. %3 of UK of brick made from sand and lime, sometimes with the addition of crushed flint.

63 TYPES OF BRICK Common unit - suitable for general construction,with no special claim to give an attractive appereance. Facing unit - speacilly made or selected to give an attractive appearance Header- shorter face of a masonry unit showing on the face of a wall Brick- not exceeding 338 mm in lenght,225mm in width,nor 113 mm in height.

64 TYPES OF BRICK Engineering brick- fired clay brick,having a dense and strong semi-vitreous body,conforming to defined limits for water absorbtion and compressive strength Frogged brick-Frogs not exceeding %20 of gross volume Soft mud bricks- most economical.burned at C to achieve strenght. Dry pressed bricks-more accurate,sharper-edged bricks

65 TYPES OF BRICK Extruded bricks-hard dense,lighter,easier to handle,different thermal properties from solid bricks.make hardened by drying hours at C before being fired. Calcium silicate bricks-consist of lime,mixed with quartz , crushed flint or crushed siliceous rock with mineral colourants. Bricks are accurate ,uniform, various colors( white is common)

66 USES OF BRICK In metalurgy industry , glass industry for lining furnaces. Use as a refractory (silica, magnesia bricks) To make walls,barbeques,fences etc..

Hard Durable Rectangular Smallish Holds heat well/insulates Compact Come in several earth-tone colors Cheap

68 REFERENCES WEB, WEB , WEB, WEB, Standard specification for portland cement (AASHTO M 85-89) AASHTO standard specification for transportation materials. Part I, Specifications. 14th ed. Powers, T. C., L. E. Copeland, J. C. Hayes, and H. M. Mann Permeability of portland cement paste. ACl Journal Proceedings 51 (3): Whiting, D Permeability of selected concretes. ACI special publication. Permeability of concrete SP-108: Tsuji, Y., and N. Miyake Chemically prestressed precast concrete box culverts. Concrete International: Design and Construction 10 (5):76-82 (May). Ramachandran, V. S., and R. F. Feldman Cement science. In Concrete admixtures handbook: Properties, science, and technology, ed. V. Ramachandran, Park Ridge, N.J.: Noyes Publications.

69 Thank you for your attention
Simple question about our presentation. What is the composition of concrete? What is the purpose of curing? What is the types of asphalt mostly used in construction? What type of construction material is used for lining the kilns?


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