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1 The Science and Engineering of Materials, 4 th ed Donald R. Askeland – Pradeep P. Phulé Chapter 17 – Construction Materials

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2 Objectives of Chapter 17 To present a summary of the material properties of wood, concrete, and asphalt.

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3 Chapter Outline 17.1 The Structure of Wood 17.2 Moisture Content and Density of Wood 17.3 Mechanical Properties of Wood 17.4 Expansion and Contraction of Wood 17.5 Plywood 17.6 Concrete Materials 17.7 Properties of Concrete 17.8 Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete 17.9 Asphalt

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4 Wood consists of four main constituents – Cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, extractives Three important levels in the structure of wood: - The fiber structure - The cell structure - The macrostructure Section 17.1 The Structure of Wood

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5 ©2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Figure 17.1 The structure of the cellulose filaments in wood.

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6 ©2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Figure 17.2 The structure of wood: (a) the macrostructure, including a layer structure outlined by the annual growth rings, (b) detail of the cell structure within one annul growth ring, p (c) the structure of a cell, including several layers composed of microfibrils of cellulose fibers, hemicellulose fibers, and lignin, and (d) the microfibril’s aligned, partly crystalline cellulose chains.

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7 Figure 17.3 The cellular structure in (a) softwood and (b) hardwood. Softwoods contain larger, longer cells than hardwoods. The hardwoods, however, contain large- diameter vessels. Water is transported through softwoods by the cells and through hardwoods by the vessels. (From J.M. Dinwoodie, Wood: Nature’s Cellular Polymeric Fiber- Composite, The Institute of Metals, 1989.)

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8 The percentage water in wood is given by: Section 17.2 Moisture Content and Density of Wood

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9 A green wood has a density of 0.86 g/cm 3 and contains 175% water. Calculate the density of the wood after it has completely dried. Example 17.1 SOLUTION A 100-cm 3 sample of the wood would weigh 86 g. From Equation 17-1, we can calculate the weight of the dry wood to be: Example 17.1 Density of Dry and Wet Wood

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10 Example 17.1 SOLUTION (Continued)

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11 Section 17.3 Mechanical Properties of Wood ©2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Figure 17.4 The effect of the percentage of water in a typical wood on the compressive strength parallel to the grain.

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12 ©2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Figure 17.5 The different directions in a log. Because of differences in cell orientation and the grain, wood displays anisotropic behavior.

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15 Section 17.4 Expansion and Contraction of Wood The change in dimensions Δx in wood in the radial and tangential directions is approximated by where x 0 is the initial dimension, M i is the initial water content, M f is the final water content, and c is a coefficient that describes the dimensional change and can be measured in either the radial or the tangential direction.

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17 The anisotropic behavior of wood can be reduced, and wood products can be made in larger sizes, by producing plywood. Plies - The individual sheet of wood veneer from which plywood is constructed. Section 17.5 Plywood

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18 Aggregate - An aggregate is a combination of gravel, sand, crushed stones, or slag. Mortar - A mortar is made by mixing cement, water, air, and fine aggregates. Concrete contains all of the ingredients of the mortar and coarse aggregates. Cements - Cements are inorganic materials that set and harden after being mixed into a paste using water. Sand - Chemically sand is predominantly silica (SiO 2 ). Section 17.6 Concrete Materials

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19 ©2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Figure 17.6 The rate of hydration of the minerals in Portland cement.

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20 ©2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Figure 17.7 The compressive strength of concrete increases with time. After 28 days, the concrete approaches its maximum strength.

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23 Many factors influence the properties of concrete. Some of the most important are: -Water-Cement Ratio: -Slump - The decrease in height of a standard concrete form when the concrete settles under its own weight. -Workability - The ease with which a concrete slurry fills all of the space in a form. - Air-Entrained Concrete - Type and Amount of Aggregate Section 17.7 Properties of Concrete

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24 ©2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Figure 17.8 The slump test, in which deformation of a concrete shape under its own weight is measured, is used to describe the workability of concrete mix.

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25 ©2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Figure 17.9 The effect of the water-cement ratio and entrained air on the 28-day compressive strength of concrete.

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26 ©2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Figure 17.10 The amount of water per cubic yard of concrete required to give the desired workability (or slump) depends on the size of the coarse aggregate.

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27 ©2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Figure 17.11 The volume ratio of aggregate to concrete depends on the sand and aggregate sizes. Note that the volume ratio uses the bulk density of the aggregate – about 60% of the true density.

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28 Determine the amounts of water, cement, sand, and aggregate in 5 cubic yards of concrete, assuming that we want to obtain a water/cement ratio of 0.4 (by weight) and that the cement/sand/aggregate ratio is 1:2.5:4 (by weight). A‘‘normal’’ aggregate will be used, containing 1% water, and the sand contains 4% water. Assume that no air is entrained into the concrete. Example 17.2 SOLUTION For each sack of cement we use, the volume of materials required is: Example 17.2 Composition of Concrete

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29 Example 17.2 SOLUTION (Continued) Total volume of concrete = 4.779 ft 3 /sack of cement Therefore, in 5 cubic yards (or 135 ft 3 ), we need:

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30 Example 17.2 SOLUTION (Continued) But the sand contains 4% water and the gravel contains 1% water. To obtain the weight of the wet sand and gravel, we must adjust for the water content of each: Therefore, we actually only need to add: Accordingly, we recommend that 28 sacks of cement, 6843 lb of sand, and 10,633 lb of gravel be combined with 82 gal of water.

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31 Design a concrete mix that will provide a 28-day compressive strength of 4000 psi in a concrete intended for producing a 5-in.- thick retaining wall 6-ft high. We expect to have about 2% air entrained in the concrete, although we will not intentionally entrain air. Our aggregate contains 1% moisture, and we have only coarse sand containing 5% moisture available. Example 17.3 Design of a Concrete Mix for a Retaining Wall ©2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Figure 17.10 The amount of water per cubic yard of concrete required to give the desired workability (or slump) depends on the size of the coarse aggregate.

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32 ©2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Figure 17.9 The effect of the water-cement ratio and entrained air on the 28-day compressive strength of concrete. ©2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Figure 17.11 The volume ratio of aggregate to concrete depends on the sand and aggregate sizes. Note that the volume ratio uses the bulk density of the aggregate – about 60% of the true density.

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33 Example 17.3 SOLUTION Let’s determine the volume of each constituent per cubic yard of concrete in order to calculate the amount of sand required: Or converting to other units, assuming that the aggregate and sand are dry:

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34 Example 17.3 SOLUTION (Continued) However, the aggregate and the sand are wet. Thus, the actual amounts of aggregate and sand needed are: The actual amount of water needed is: Thus, for each cubic yard of concrete, we will combine 6 sacks of cement, 1948 lb of aggregate, 1182 lb of sand, and 29.3 gal of water.

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35 Several methods are used to improve the load-bearing ability of concrete in tension. Reinforced Concrete - Steel rods (known as rebars), wires, or mesh are frequently introduced into concrete to provide improvement in resisting tensile and bending forces. Prestressed Concrete - Instead of simply being laid as reinforcing rods in a form, the steel can initially be pulled in tension between an anchor and a jack, thus remaining under tension during the pouring and curing of the concrete. Poststressed Concrete - An alternate method of placing concrete under compression is to place hollow tubes in the concrete before pouring. Section 17.8 Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete

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36 Asphalt is a composite of aggregate and bitumen. Bitumen - The organic binder, composed of low melting point polymers and oils, for asphalt. Glasphalt - Asphalt in which the aggregate includes recycled glass. Section 17.9 Asphalt

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37 ©2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Figure 17.12 The ideal structure of asphalt (a) compared with the undesirable structure (b) in which round grains, a narrow distribution of grains, and excess binder all reduce the strength of the final material.

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