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Ocean Chemistry: Solutions LA Charter School Science Partnership 15 October 2011 Nick Klein.

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Presentation on theme: "Ocean Chemistry: Solutions LA Charter School Science Partnership 15 October 2011 Nick Klein."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ocean Chemistry: Solutions LA Charter School Science Partnership 15 October 2011 Nick Klein

2 Today’s Talk Intro & Biography Part 1: Chemistry review, phases of matter Part 2: Chemical solutions Part 3: Solutions in the ocean context

3 About Me Third year PhD student in Earth Sciences BA Biology and Chemistry from Augustana College, SD I study global impacts of marine trace chemistry Thesis research: production of marine halocarbons Field sampling on Lake Tahoe

4 Today’s Talk cont’d I’ve split this talk into three (roughly) even parts. We will take a brief (2-3min) break between sections. Please feel free to take notes, handle the props on the table at the front of the room, think of questions for after the talk, etc.

5 Sergio Sañudo-Wilhelmy, my PhD mentor

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8 Part 1: Basic chemistry review What is the basic unit of chemistry? –An atom How do we define an atom? –Smallest unit of a chemical element that still has all the unique characteristics of that element –Indivisible by any chemical means

9 Part 1: Basic chemistry review Atoms are composed of a nucleus and orbiting electrons Nucleus contains protons and neutrons Electrons are negatively charged, protons positive. Neutrons are not charged (neutral).

10 Part 1: Basic chemistry review The identity of an atom is based on the number of protons it has. This is called the atomic number

11 Part 1: Basic chemistry review

12 The identity of an atom is based on the number of protons it has. This is called the atomic number Carbon has an atomic number of 6 (6 protons) Oxygen has an atomic number of 8 (8 protons)

13 Part 1: Basic chemistry review An electron has almost no mass (weighs almost nothing) Protons and neutrons have the same mass, each weighs 1 atomic mass unit (1 amu) Atomic mass is weight (in amu) of an atom and is therefore equal to protons + neutrons!

14 Part 1: Basic chemistry review

15 Carbon has an atomic mass of 12amu 6 protons + 6 neutrons = 12 Oxygen has an atomic mass of 16amu 8 protons + 8 neutrons = 16 Since electrons weigh nearly nothing, almost all of the mass of an atom is in the nucleus!

16 Part 1: Basic chemistry review Atoms and molecules are mostly empty space! A single pea (nucleus)

17 Part 1: Basic chemistry review Atoms are tiny! How many molecules of water are in my flask? Answer: about 600 billion trillion, or 600,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 molecules of water!

18 Part 1: Basic chemistry review The kinetic molecular theory of matter: We can describe the behavior of matter based on what we know about how the individual molecules are moving.

19 Part 1: Basic chemistry review Three phases of matter: solid, liquid, gas Solid – slowest movement of molecules, just vibrating Liquid—molecules moving enough to be able to flow over and around each other Gas—molecules moving very rapidly, fill the available space

20 Part 1: Basic chemistry review Three phases of matter: solid, liquid, gas Solid – slowest movement of molecules, just vibrating Liquid—molecules moving enough to be able to flow over and around each other Gas—molecules moving very rapidly, fill the available space

21 Part 1: Basic chemistry review Solid—fixed shape and volume, molecules cannot move Liquid—no fixed shape, but volume stays the same. Molecules can flow. Gas—no fixed shape OR volume, molecules spread to fill the available space.

22 Part 1: Basic chemistry review

23 Part 1: Basic chemistry review Counting molecules- we use a special unit called the “mole” = 6.02 x molecules or atoms There are 6.02 x protons in one gram of protons (or neutrons) This allows us to easily convert from amu on the periodic table into molecules of a substance!

24 Part 1: Basic chemistry review

25 Break

26 Part 2: Solutions What is a solution? How do we define a chemical solution? A mixture of two or more substances which are dispersed homogenously on a molecular level.

27 Part 2: Solutions Solvent- the substance that is in greater quantity, does the dissolving, usually a liquid Solute- the substance that is dissolve,d usually in a lesser quantity, can be solid, liquid, or gas How about your morning coffee (or tea, or soda…)?

28 Part 2: Solutions Why don’t oil and vinegar mix? Why do alcohol and water mix? Let’s examine the structure of some of these molecules.

29 Part 2: Solutions

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31 The answer is polarity Some molecules have their electrons unevenly distributed, giving them a more negative and a more positive end Nonpolar molecules have electrons evenly distributed throughout

32 Part 2: Solutions

33 Electronegativity – some elements are “greedy” and want electrons more than others. They don’t like to share. Oxygen is greedy!

34 Part 2: Solutions

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36 Why don’t oil and vinegar mix? Why do alcohol and water mix? Let’s examine the structure of some of these molecules.

37 Part 2: Solutions

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39 LIKE DISSOLVES LIKE!

40 Part 2: Solutions

41 Why do we use soap to wash our dishes? How does soap work?

42 Part 2: Solutions Soap molecules are surfactants. They have a charged (polar) head and a relatively uncharged (nonpolar) “tail,” so they can bridge the gap between water and grease! Water is then able to dissolve the grease or oils. This is called an emulsion. How might this be important for cleaning up oil spills?

43 Part 2: Solutions

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45 Hydrogen bonding is a related concept Since polar molecules have oppositely charged ends, they can attract each other and form loose chemical bonds This is especially important in water!

46 Part 2: Solutions

47 Break

48 Part 3 – Ocean Context Let’s brainstorm! Why is the chemistry of the oceans important?

49 Part 3 – Ocean Context Cover 75% of Earth’s surface About 50% of all life on Earth lives in the oceans (if it weren’t for algae, we wouldn’t have oxygen to breathe, too!) They moderate our climate and weather by storing and releasing heat

50 Part 3 – Ocean Context The story of ocean chemistry is the story of aqueous solutions (solutions with water as the solvent) Water has many unique properties because of the chemistry we have discussed How many can we come up with?

51 Part 3 – Ocean Context Water exists in three distinct states of matter in typical Earth conditions – water vapor (steam, clouds), liquid water, and ice Water is a great solvent (3.5% salt) Water has a high heat capacity Solid water (ice) is actually less dense than liquid water and floats

52 Part 3 – Ocean Context

53 Before you go… Think about this scenario and come up with a description (based on the kinetic molecular theory of matter) of what is happening on a macro (large) scale and on the molecular level: An iceberg breaks loose in the Arctic and begins to float south into warmer waters.


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