Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Drilling in Ecuador ’ s Amazon Basin By Megan Bell Ecol 474.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Drilling in Ecuador ’ s Amazon Basin By Megan Bell Ecol 474."— Presentation transcript:

1 Drilling in Ecuador ’ s Amazon Basin By Megan Bell Ecol 474

2 The Amazon Basin in Ecuador -The entire Amazon Basin covers 6,100,000km ² of South America -In Ecuador, it is nearly 40% of the country -Home to 500,000 people -Amazing wildlife and plant species: Freshwater dolphins, toucans, 100 sp butterflies, orchids

3 Oil Drilling in Ecuador Oil reserves proven billion barrels in the OrienteOil reserves proven billion barrels in the Oriente Texaco the first company to drill in 1967Texaco the first company to drill in 1967 Now there are 16 companies: Petroecuador, 3 private Ecuadorian companies, 12 Foreign companies there are 16 companies: Petroecuador, 3 private Ecuadorian companies, 12 Foreign companies Petroecuador accounts for 55% of the total output, Private companies account for 45%Petroecuador accounts for 55% of the total output, Private companies account for 45% Oil export accounts for 40% of Ecuador ’ s earningsOil export accounts for 40% of Ecuador ’ s earnings

4 Drilling Continued … May 2006, Petroecuador took over Occidental Petroleum Corp, the largest privately owned oil company in EcuadorMay 2006, Petroecuador took over Occidental Petroleum Corp, the largest privately owned oil company in Ecuador –President Alfredo Palacio has been under pressure to expel Oxy for exploiting natural resources without benefit to natives –The government claims Oxy made illegal transfers with other companies without receiving permission –Since the takeover, production has decreased 4% –Fear Petroecuador will not be able to keep up same production rate as Americans did

5 Oil Road Trans-Ecuador Pipeline Drilling Rig

6 Pollution in the Oriente Exploratory wells create 4,000 cubic meters of wasteExploratory wells create 4,000 cubic meters of waste Commonly disposed into open pits which eventually let the untreated waste into the environmentCommonly disposed into open pits which eventually let the untreated waste into the environment If site is going to be drilled, waste increases to 4.3 million gallons of discharge water every day, most released as untreated into pits, and 53 million cubic feet of gas burned without regulationsIf site is going to be drilled, waste increases to 4.3 million gallons of discharge water every day, most released as untreated into pits, and 53 million cubic feet of gas burned without regulations

7 Environmental Studies 1987: found high levels of oil and grease in water near production sites, low dissolved oxygen had damaged aquatic ecosystem (36 samples taken)1987: found high levels of oil and grease in water near production sites, low dissolved oxygen had damaged aquatic ecosystem (36 samples taken) 1989: crude oil was regularly dumped into forests and water system (187 wells sampled)1989: crude oil was regularly dumped into forests and water system (187 wells sampled) 1994: concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons 10 to 10,000 times higher than EPA recommendations1994: concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons 10 to 10,000 times higher than EPA recommendations 1998: contamination of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in areas of drilling, none found in areas without drilling (46 streams)1998: contamination of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in areas of drilling, none found in areas without drilling (46 streams) No studies of impact of pollution on fish and lack of information on soil pollutionNo studies of impact of pollution on fish and lack of information on soil pollution

8 Open pool of waste water Burning GasOpen pit of oil waste Gas flare

9 Oil Spills 1984: A total of 294,000 gallons spilled into the Napo River, ran black for a week1984: A total of 294,000 gallons spilled into the Napo River, ran black for a week 1992: 275,000 gallons spilled1992: 275,000 gallons spilled 1992: approx 30 spills totaling 16.8 million gallons1992: approx 30 spills totaling 16.8 million gallons Jan-Sept 2006: 117 oil spills recordedJan-Sept 2006: 117 oil spills recorded

10

11 Oil spills continued … Many drilling stations in national parksMany drilling stations in national parks –Yasuni: largest protected area, home to 4,000 flowering plants, over 600 birds and animal species –Cuyabeno: second largest protected area, 580 bird species, 9 species primates, also have freshwater dolphins, manatees, giant anacondas

12

13 Lawsuit against Texaco 1993: 30,000 native Ecuadorians sued Texaco with charges of 18 billion gallons of produced water dumped into rivers and streams1993: 30,000 native Ecuadorians sued Texaco with charges of 18 billion gallons of produced water dumped into rivers and streams 2002: Trial moved to Ecuador and decision has yet to be made2002: Trial moved to Ecuador and decision has yet to be made

14 Health concerns Children are born with fused fingers, deformed eyes, teenagers have tumors and amputated arms and legsChildren are born with fused fingers, deformed eyes, teenagers have tumors and amputated arms and legs Several studies have shown health risks involved in living near oil fieldsSeveral studies have shown health risks involved in living near oil fields –1993: communities in oil producing areas have higher mortality rates, malnutrition, dermatitis, skin mycosis, higher abortion rates –1994: study reported skin problems for natives living in oil-contaminated areas –1998: increase in cancer among males living in oil-producing village within the Oriente –2000: increase cancer rate in men and women living in areas with drilling for more than 20 years

15 What should be done? Five interrelated actions:Five interrelated actions: –Ecuadorian government needs to asses environmental situation in the Oriente region Clean up the damage and prevent further damage from happeningClean up the damage and prevent further damage from happening –Oil companies need to change their processes minimize impacts and work with the natives to help them receive benefits Natives need to be educated on environmental plans and have them accessibleNatives need to be educated on environmental plans and have them accessible

16 Actions continued … –Health impact assessments need to be integrated into policy development and evaluation Community consultation and participation crucial for assessing impact on env and healthCommunity consultation and participation crucial for assessing impact on env and health –Community organizations need to work with regional, national, and international environmental groups to enforce the new constitution New constitution states that oil companies need to consult communities before oil explorationNew constitution states that oil companies need to consult communities before oil exploration –Trade policies need to be shifted towards environmental sustainability and social justice

17 Conclusion Ecuador has large oil reserves within the Oriente region of the countryEcuador has large oil reserves within the Oriente region of the country Ecuador ’ s economy depends on oil exportEcuador ’ s economy depends on oil export Drilling the Amazon has caused severe environmental impacts and major health issues for nativesDrilling the Amazon has caused severe environmental impacts and major health issues for natives

18 Questions??

19 Sources San Sebastion, M., Hurtig, A Oil exploitation in the Amazon basin of Ecuador: a public health emergency. Pan Am J Public Health 15(3).San Sebastion, M., Hurtig, A Oil exploitation in the Amazon basin of Ecuador: a public health emergency. Pan Am J Public Health 15(3). Hurtig, A., San Sebastion, M Epidemiology vs epidemiology: the case of oil exploitation in the Amazon basin of Ecuador. International Journal of Epidemiology 34(5): Hurtig, A., San Sebastion, M Epidemiology vs epidemiology: the case of oil exploitation in the Amazon basin of Ecuador. International Journal of Epidemiology 34(5):  San Sebastián, M., Armstrong, M., Cordoba, J. A., Stephens, C. Exposures and cancer incidence near oil fields in the Amazon basin of Ecuador. Occup Environ Med 58:517–22.  Smith, Geri In Ecuador, One Slippery Oil Patch; Oxy is out and PetroEcuador is in, but can the state company keep things flowing. (Company overview). Business Week 40:50.  The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency November .  Oil Spill Labeled Sabotage Oil Spill Intelligence Report 29:40.  Hearn, Kelly Big Oil on Trial. The Environmental Magazine 17:2.  Ecuador Cancels an Oil Deal With Occidental Petroleum The New York Times section C:12.

20 Picture sources amazon.htmhttp://www.lostworldadventures.com/countries/ecuador/regions/ amazon.htmhttp://www.lostworldadventures.com/countries/ecuador/regions/ amazon.htmhttp://www.lostworldadventures.com/countries/ecuador/regions/ amazon.htm ecuador.phphttp://www.newtopiamagazine.net/archives/content/issue17/features/ ecuador.phphttp://www.newtopiamagazine.net/archives/content/issue17/features/ ecuador.phphttp://www.newtopiamagazine.net/archives/content/issue17/features/ ecuador.php showimage?pic=/southamerica/ecuador/amazonbasin/amazon_basin_ecuadhttp://www.world66.com/southamerica/ecuador/amazonbasin/lib/gallery/ showimage?pic=/southamerica/ecuador/amazonbasin/amazon_basin_ecuadhttp://www.world66.com/southamerica/ecuador/amazonbasin/lib/gallery/ showimage?pic=/southamerica/ecuador/amazonbasin/amazon_basin_ecuadhttp://www.world66.com/southamerica/ecuador/amazonbasin/lib/gallery/ showimage?pic=/southamerica/ecuador/amazonbasin/amazon_basin_ecuad


Download ppt "Drilling in Ecuador ’ s Amazon Basin By Megan Bell Ecol 474."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google