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ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH REVERBERATION INTRODUCTION DEFINITION:  THE BEHAVIOR OF SOUND IN ENCLOSED.

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Presentation on theme: "ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH REVERBERATION INTRODUCTION DEFINITION:  THE BEHAVIOR OF SOUND IN ENCLOSED."— Presentation transcript:

1 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH REVERBERATION INTRODUCTION DEFINITION:  THE BEHAVIOR OF SOUND IN ENCLOSED SPACES.  HOW THE ACOUSTICAL ENVIRONMENT AFFECTS THE FUNCTIONS & ACTIVITIES IN THE SPACE.

2 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH REVERBERATION INTRODUCTION SOUND DISTRIBUTION:  ROOM SHAPE  PLACEMENT OF REFLECTIVE AND ABSORPTIVE SURFACES.

3 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH REVERBERATION SOUND ABSORPTION

4 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH REVERBERATION ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT:  DESCRIBES THE FRACTION OF THE INCIDENT SOUND ENERGY THAT A MATERIAL ABSORBS. THEORETICALLY IT CAN VARY FROM 0 (NO SOUND ENERGY ABSORBED) TO 1.0 (PERFECT ABSORPTION OF ALL INCIDENT SOUND ENERGY)

5 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH REVERBERATION NOISE REDUCTION COEFFICIENT

6 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH REVERBERATION SABINES

7 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH REVERBERATION DIRECT SOUND

8 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH REVERBERATION DIRECT SOUND IMPROVING THE DIRECT SOUND PATH:  PLACING THE AUDIENCE AS CLOSE AS POSSIBLE TO THE STAGE.

9 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH REVERBERATION PLACING THE AUDIENCE AS CLOSE AS POSSIBLE TO THE STAGE.

10 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH REVERBERATION PLACING THE AUDIENCE AS CLOSE AS POSSIBLE TO THE STAGE. IMPROVING THE DIRECT SOUND PATH: PLACING THE AUDIENCE AS CLOSE AS POSSIBLE TO THE STAGE THROUGH STACKED BALCONIES.

11 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH REVERBERATION IMPROVING THE DIRECT SOUND PATH IMPROVING THE DIRECT SOUND PATH:  RAISING THE SOURCE IN HEIGHT.

12 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH REVERBERATION IMPROVING THE DIRECT SOUND PATH IMPROVING THE DIRECT SOUND PATH:  RAISING THE SOURCE IN HEIGHT.

13 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH REVERBERATION IMPROVING THE DIRECT SOUND PATH IMPROVING THE DIRECT SOUND PATH:  RAKING THE SEATING.

14 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH  DESCRIPTION  RAY-DIAGRAMS  HORIZONTAL SURFACES  INCLINED SURFACES  CONVEX SURFACES  CONCAVE SURFACES  ECHOES  DIFFRACTION REVERBERATION REFLECTED SOUND PATH

15 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH  DESCRIPTION  RAY-DIAGRAMS  HORIZONTAL SURFACES  INCLINED SURFACES  CONVEX SURFACES  CONCAVE SURFACES  ECHOES  DIFFRACTION REVERBERATION RAY-DIAGRAMS RAY DIAGRAMS:  PROCEDURE FOR ANALYZING REFLECTED SOUND.  RAYS ARE DRAWN NORMAL TO THE SPHERICALLY PROPAGATING OF WAVES.  SPECULAR REFLECTION IS ASSUMED.

16 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH  DESCRIPTION  RAY-DIAGRAMS  HORIZONTAL SURFACES  INCLINED SURFACES  CONVEX SURFACES  CONCAVE SURFACES  ECHOES  DIFFRACTION REVERBERATION RAY-DIAGRAMS

17 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH  DESCRIPTION  RAY-DIAGRAMS  HORIZONTAL SURFACES  INCLINED SURFACES  CONVEX SURFACES  CONCAVE SURFACES  ECHOES  DIFFRACTION REVERBERATION RAY-DIAGRAMS LIMITATIONS OF RAY DIAGRAMS:  THE SPACE IS THREE- DIMENSIONAL BUT THE DIAGRAM IS TWO- DIMENSIONAL.  COMPLICATED BY VARIOUS SPEAKING POSITIONS.  NOT APPLICABLE TO LOW- FREQUENCIES (BELOW 250HZ).

18 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH  DESCRIPTION  RAY-DIAGRAMS  HORIZONTAL SURFACES  INCLINED SURFACES  CONVEX SURFACES  CONCAVE SURFACES  ECHOES  DIFFRACTION REVERBERATION DIFFUSION OF SOUND: WHEN SOUND REFLECTS OFF A FLAT HORIZONTAL SURFACE, A DEGREE OF DIFFUSION IS PROVIDED.

19 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH  DESCRIPTION  RAY-DIAGRAMS  HORIZONTAL SURFACES  INCLINED SURFACES  CONVEX SURFACES  CONCAVE SURFACES  ECHOES  DIFFRACTION REVERBERATION FLUTTER ECHO FLUTTER ECHO:  REPEATED ECHOES TRAVERSING BACK AND FORTH BETWEEN TWO PARALLEL SURFACES.  REQUIRES AN IMPULSE SOURCE.  PERCEIVED AS A BUZZING OR CLICKING SOUND.

20 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH  DESCRIPTION  RAY-DIAGRAMS  HORIZONTAL SURFACES  INCLINED SURFACES  CONVEX SURFACES  CONCAVE SURFACES  ECHOES  DIFFRACTION REVERBERATION STANDING WAVES (ROOM RESONANCE) STANDING WAVES (ROOM RESONANCE):  SIMILAR TO FLUTTER IN PRINCIPLE BUT CAUSED BY PURE TONE SOURCES.  PERCEIVED AS VARIATIONS IN SOUND LEVEL.

21 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH  DESCRIPTION  RAY-DIAGRAMS  HORIZONTAL SURFACES  INCLINED SURFACES  CONVEX SURFACES  CONCAVE SURFACES  ECHOES  DIFFRACTION REVERBERATION STANDING WAVES (ROOM RESONANCE) DESCRIPTION:  STANDING WAVES WILL OCCUR WHEN PARALLEL WALLS ARE SOME INTEGRAL MULTIPLE OF HALF A WAVE LENGTH APART.  THEY OCCUR ONLY IN SMALL ROOMS (30’ OR LESS FOR MUSIC & 15’ OR LESS FOR SPEECH.

22 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH  DESCRIPTION  RAY-DIAGRAMS  HORIZONTAL SURFACES  INCLINED SURFACES  CONVEX SURFACES  CONCAVE SURFACES  ECHOES  DIFFRACTION REVERBERATION FLUTTER ECHO & ROOM RESONANCE METHODS OF CONTROL:  SOUND ABSORBING TREATMENT.  NONPARALLEL-WALL SURFACES.  SOUND-DIFFUSING WALL MODULATION.

23 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH  DESCRIPTION  RAY-DIAGRAMS  HORIZONTAL SURFACES  INCLINED SURFACES  CONVEX SURFACES  CONCAVE SURFACES  ECHOES  DIFFRACTION REVERBERATION METHODS OF CONTROL: NONPARALLEL-WALL SURFACES & SOUND-DIFFUSING WALL MODULATION.

24 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH  DESCRIPTION  RAY-DIAGRAMS  HORIZONTAL SURFACES  INCLINED SURFACES  CONVEX SURFACES  CONCAVE SURFACES  ECHOES  DIFFRACTION REVERBERATION INCLINED FLAT SURFACES  GREATER DIFFUSION IS PROVIDED.  IF THE INCLINATION IS UP TOWARD THE AUDIENCE, SOUND IS PROJECTED DEEPER INTO THE ROOM.  CAN INCREASE USEFUL CEILING REFLECTIVE SURFACE.

25 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH  DESCRIPTION  RAY-DIAGRAMS  HORIZONTAL SURFACES  INCLINED SURFACES  CONVEX SURFACES  CONCAVE SURFACES  ECHOES  DIFFRACTION REVERBERATION SOUNDING BOARD  GREATER DIFFUSION IS PROVIDED.  IF THE INCLINATION IS UP TOWARD THE AUDIENCE, SOUND IS PROJECTED DEEPER INTO THE ROOM.  CAN INCREASE USEFUL CEILING REFLECTIVE SURFACE.

26 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH  DESCRIPTION  RAY-DIAGRAMS  HORIZONTAL SURFACES  INCLINED SURFACES  CONVEX SURFACES  CONCAVE SURFACES  ECHOES  DIFFRACTION REVERBERATION SOUNDING BOARD DESCRIPTION:  THE SOUND SOURCE SHOULD BE CLOSELY AND ABUNDANTLY SURROUNDED WITH LARGE SOUND- REFLECTING SURFACES, SUCH AS PLASTER OR CONCRETE, TO INSURE ADEQUATE LOUDNESS IN REMOTE AREAS.

27 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH  DESCRIPTION  RAY-DIAGRAMS  HORIZONTAL SURFACES  INCLINED SURFACES  CONVEX SURFACES  CONCAVE SURFACES  ECHOES  DIFFRACTION REVERBERATION  PROVIDES THE GREATEST DIFFUSION.  IN A DIFFUSE SOUND FIELD THE SOUND LEVEL REMAINS RELATIVELY CONSTANT THROUGHOUT THE SPACE WHICH IS EXTREMELY DESIRABLE FOR MUSIC.

28 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH  DESCRIPTION  RAY-DIAGRAMS  HORIZONTAL SURFACES  INCLINED SURFACES  CONVEX SURFACES  CONCAVE SURFACES  ECHOES  DIFFRACTION REVERBERATION CONVEX SURFACES

29 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH  DESCRIPTION  RAY-DIAGRAMS  HORIZONTAL SURFACES  INCLINED SURFACES  CONVEX SURFACES  CONCAVE SURFACES  ECHOES  DIFFRACTION REVERBERATION FOCUSING CONCAVE SURFACES:  REFLECTED SOUND IS CONCENTRATED INTO CERTAIN AREAS.  CREATES HOT AND DEAD SPOTS ACOUSTICALLY.

30 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH  DESCRIPTION  RAY-DIAGRAMS  HORIZONTAL SURFACES  INCLINED SURFACES  CONVEX SURFACES  CONCAVE SURFACES  ECHOES  DIFFRACTION REVERBERATION FOCUSING

31 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH  DESCRIPTION  RAY-DIAGRAMS  HORIZONTAL SURFACES  INCLINED SURFACES  CONVEX SURFACES  CONCAVE SURFACES  ECHOES  DIFFRACTION REVERBERATION CREEP  REFLECTION OF SOUND ALONG A CURVED SURFACE FROM A SOURCE NEAR THE SURFACE.  ALTHOUGH THE SOUND CAN BE HEARD AT POINTS ALONG THE SURFACE, IT IS INAUDIBLE AWAY FROM THE SURFACE..

32 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH  DESCRIPTION  RAY-DIAGRAMS  HORIZONTAL SURFACES  INCLINED SURFACES  CONVEX SURFACES  CONCAVE SURFACES  ECHOES  DIFFRACTION REVERBERATION CREEP METHODS OF CONTROL:  SURFACE UNDULATIONS.  SOUND ABSORBING TREATMENT.

33 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH  DESCRIPTION  RAY-DIAGRAMS  HORIZONTAL SURFACES  INCLINED SURFACES  CONVEX SURFACES  CONCAVE SURFACES  ECHOES  DIFFRACTION REVERBERATION EERO SAARINEN, MIT CHAPEL

34 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH  DESCRIPTION  RAY-DIAGRAMS  HORIZONTAL SURFACES  INCLINED SURFACES  CONVEX SURFACES  CONCAVE SURFACES  ECHOES  DIFFRACTION REVERBERATION ECHOES ECHO:  THE DISTINCT REPETITION OF THE ORIGINAL SOUND SUCH THAT IT IS SUFFICIENTLY LOUD TO BE CLEARLY HEARD ABOVE GENERAL REVEBERATION.

35 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH  DESCRIPTION  RAY-DIAGRAMS  HORIZONTAL SURFACES  INCLINED SURFACES  CONVEX SURFACES  CONCAVE SURFACES  ECHOES  DIFFRACTION REVERBERATION ECHOES DESCRIPTION:  ECHOES OCCUR WHEN THE REFLECTED SOUND PATH EXCEEDS THE DIRECT SOUND PATH BY MORE THAN 60 FEET.

36 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH  DESCRIPTION  RAY-DIAGRAMS  HORIZONTAL SURFACES  INCLINED SURFACES  CONVEX SURFACES  CONCAVE SURFACES  ECHOES  DIFFRACTION REVERBERATION ECHOES CONTROL: USE OF SOUND ABSORBING MATERIAL OR INCLINING CEILING SURFACE.

37 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH  DESCRIPTION  RAY-DIAGRAMS  HORIZONTAL SURFACES  INCLINED SURFACES  CONVEX SURFACES  CONCAVE SURFACES  ECHOES  DIFFRACTION REVERBERATION DIFFRACTION  THE BENDING OR FLOWING OF A SOUND WAVE AROUND AN OBJECT OR THROUGH AN OPENING.  IMPINGING SOUND WAVES WILL READILY DIFFRACT AROUND PANELS THAT ARE SMALLER THAN THEIR WAVELENGTH.

38 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH REVERBERATION  DESCRIPTION  PATTERNS OF REVERBERANT DECAY  REVERBERATION TIME REVERBERATION REVERBERATION:  THE PERSISTENCE OF SOUND AT MID- FREQUENCIES.  DETERMINED BY ROOM VOLUME AND TOTAL ABSORPTION AT THAT FREQUENCY.

39 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH REVERBERATION  DESCRIPTION  PATTERNS OF REVERBERANT DECAY  REVERBERATION TIME SOUND IN A LARGE ROOM

40 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH REVERBERATION  DESCRIPTION  PATTERNS OF REVERBERANT DECAY  REVERBERATION TIME SOUND IN A SMALL ROOM

41 ROOM ACOUSTICS INTRODUCTION SOUND ABSORPTION DIRECT SOUND PATH REFLECTED SOUND PATH REVERBERATION  DESCRIPTION  PATTERNS OF REVERBERANT DECAY  REVERBERATION TIME REVERBERATION TIME REVERBERATION TIME:  THE TIME REQUIRED FOR SOUND TO DECAY 60 DECIBELS AFTER THE SOURCE HAS STOPPED.


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