# Modern Physics Lecture III. The Quantum Hypothesis In this lecture we examine the evidence for “light quanta” and the implications of their existence.

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Modern Physics Lecture III

The Quantum Hypothesis In this lecture we examine the evidence for “light quanta” and the implications of their existence In this lecture we examine the evidence for “light quanta” and the implications of their existence  Waves as Particles  The photoelectric effect  Compton scattering  Particles as Waves  Electron diffraction  The Double Slit Revisited

Photoelectric effect When light strikes the cathode, electrons are emitted When light strikes the cathode, electrons are emitted Electrons moving between the two plates constitute a current Electrons moving between the two plates constitute a current

Photoelectric Effect Properties of the photoelectric effect Properties of the photoelectric effect  Electrons are only emitted above a certain “cut-off” frequency  This frequency is different for different materials  It is called the “work function”  Below the “work function” no electrons are emitted no matter how intense the light is  The maximum energy of the ejected electron is K max =e  V s

Photoelectric Effect Properties Properties  No photoelectrons are emitted if the frequency falls below some cut-off frequency f c  The maximum energy of the photons is independent of the light intensity  The maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons increases with increasing frequency  Photoelectrons are emitted almost instantaneously from the surface

Photoelectric Effect Explanation Explanation  Einstein extended Planck’s explanation for blackbody radiation to suggest that in fact the quanta of energy used in blackbody radiation are in fact localised “particle like” energy packets  Each having an energy given by hf  Emitted electrons will have an energy given by  Where  is known as the “work function” of the material

Photoelectric Effect Quantum interpretation Quantum interpretation  If the energy of a photon is less than the work function , the photon cannot give enough energy to the electron to leave the surface  K max does not depend on light intensity, because doubling the number of photons would only double the number of electrons and not double their energy  K max increases with frequency because energy and frequency are related  If light is particle-like, then all of the energy will be delivered instantaneously thus liberating an electron with no time delay between the light hitting the surface and the electron escaping

Inverse photoelectric effect - Production of X-rays 1. 1.Photons are absorbed in whole - electrons can transfer part of their energy. 2. 2.Brehmsstrahlung - electrons decelerate in electromagnetic field of nuclei: E f = E i - h, wide distribution 3. 3.Maximal frequency - minimal wavelength (observed empirically first) eV = h max = h c / min 4. 4.Also discrete spectrum (atomic levels)

Roentgen Lamp Tungsten - wolfram

Compton Scattering If light is like a particle does it have momentum? If light is like a particle does it have momentum? In Compton scattering x-rays impart momentum to matter, scattering electrons like billiard balls In Compton scattering x-rays impart momentum to matter, scattering electrons like billiard balls Thus photons also have momentum. The momentum of a photon is given by Thus photons also have momentum. The momentum of a photon is given by Incident Photon, 0 Scattered Photon, ’ Recoiling electron  

Photons and Electromagnetic Waves How can light be considered a photon (particle) when we know it is a wave How can light be considered a photon (particle) when we know it is a wave Light has a dual nature: it exhibits both wave and particle characteristics Light has a dual nature: it exhibits both wave and particle characteristics  There is a smooth transition of these properties across the electromagnetic spectrum  At low frequencies (radio waves) photons have a vanishingly small energy and the wave properties dominate  At high frequencies (x-rays,  -rays) it is the particle properties that dominate But…

Louis de Broglie 1892 - 1987

Wave Properties of Matter In 1923 Louis de Broglie postulated that perhaps matter exhibits the same “duality” that light exhibits In 1923 Louis de Broglie postulated that perhaps matter exhibits the same “duality” that light exhibits Perhaps all matter has both characteristics as well Perhaps all matter has both characteristics as well Previously we saw that, for photons, Previously we saw that, for photons, Which says that the wavelength of light is related to its momentum Which says that the wavelength of light is related to its momentum Making the same comparison for matter we find… Making the same comparison for matter we find…

de Broglie Wavelength of Electrons We now calculate the wavelength of a charged particle accelerated through potential V We now calculate the wavelength of a charged particle accelerated through potential V Assume that the particles have mass m and charge q Assume that the particles have mass m and charge q Equate kinetic energy of the particles with the electrostatic energy Equate kinetic energy of the particles with the electrostatic energy K = m v 2 /2 = q V momentum p = m v We can express kinetic energy in terms of momentum K = p 2 /(2 m) = q V Reorganise to get p = (2 m q V ) 1/2 de Broglie’s hypothesis gives  = h / p = h / p Substitute for p to get

Does Matter Really Have a Wavelength The wavelength of matter waves is very small. This is why we do not see them in our every day experience The wavelength of matter waves is very small. This is why we do not see them in our every day experience To see diffraction a grating a very small slit width is required (eg the space between two atoms in a crystal) To see diffraction a grating a very small slit width is required (eg the space between two atoms in a crystal) This is exactly how electron diffraction was first found! This is exactly how electron diffraction was first found!  G. P. Thompson of Scotland and Davisson and Germer from the USA used the close spacing between atoms in a crystal lattice to diffract electron waves thus proving that matter can also exhibit diffraction and interference

Sir Joseph John (JJ) Thomson

d Ni =0.215nm diffraction de Broglie C.J.Davisson and L.G.Germer

a, b, c – computer simulation d - experiment Electron interference

Electron Microscope

Electron Waves Electrons with 20ev energy, have a wavelength of about 0.27 nm Electrons with 20ev energy, have a wavelength of about 0.27 nm This is around the same size as the average spacing of atoms in a crystal lattice This is around the same size as the average spacing of atoms in a crystal lattice These atoms will therefore form a diffraction grating for electron “waves” These atoms will therefore form a diffraction grating for electron “waves” Several pictures are shown left (see the web links on the course home page) Several pictures are shown left (see the web links on the course home page) http://www.chem.qmw.ac.uk/surfaces/scc/scat6_2.htm

Conflicting Hypotheses Wave Properties Wave Properties  Reflection, Refraction  A property of both particles and waves  Interference and Diffraction  Young’s double slits  Waves Only  Polarisation  Waves Only Particle properties  Consists of discreet particles  (atoms or molecules)  Momentum  A well defined trajectory  Does not diffract or interfere  1 particle + 1 particle = 2 particles Conclusion: Our initial hypothesis is incorrect. We need to form a new hypothesis for the differences between matter and light. One could be that matter has a rest mass!

from this lecture… The solution to the blackbody spectrum leads to the concept of photons, and to a solution for the photoelectric effect The solution to the blackbody spectrum leads to the concept of photons, and to a solution for the photoelectric effect The maximum excess energy of a photoelectron is The maximum excess energy of a photoelectron is The particle nature of light is also shown by Compton scattering of electrons by photons The particle nature of light is also shown by Compton scattering of electrons by photons Scattering shows that photons have momentum given by Scattering shows that photons have momentum given by This implies that matter also has wavelike properties given by the de Broglie formula This implies that matter also has wavelike properties given by the de Broglie formula The de Broglie wavelength leads to phenomena such as electron diffraction. A common tool in modern crystallography The de Broglie wavelength leads to phenomena such as electron diffraction. A common tool in modern crystallography

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