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Dr hab. EWA POPKO www.if.pwr.wroc.pl/~popko ewa.popko@pwr.wroc.pl Room 231a, A-1 Modern Physics

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Manuals Young and Freedman, „University Physics”, Chapters 39-46 Addison – Wesley Publishing Company, 2000 Lecture I Based on the lectures by Lynn Cominsky and Jeff Forshaw

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Syllabus Lec 1 Corpuscular- waves dualism of light and matter. Planck's Law. De Broglie postulate. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle. 2 Lec 2Tunneling effect. 1 Lec 3 Hydrogen Atom. Quantum numbers. Spin. Many-electron atom. Absorption and emission spectrum. 3 Lec 4 Postulates of quantum mechanics. Wave function.The Schrodinger Equation and its application (potential well, scanning tunnelling microscope). 2 Lec 5Quantum statistics: Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein. Lasers. 2 Lec 6 Molecular bonding and in a solid state. Crystal structure of solids. Band pass model of solids. 2 Lec 7 Electro-optical properties of metals, insulators, semiconductors and the superconductors. 2 Lec 8 Selected modern semiconductor devices (solar cell, semiconductor laser, photodiode). 1 Total hours 15

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Atomic Particles Atoms are made of protons, neutrons and electrons 99.999999999999% of the atom is empty space Electrons have locations described by probability functions Nuclei have protons and neutrons nucleus m p = 1836 m e

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Atomic sizes Atoms are about 10 -10 m Nuclei are about 10 -14 m Protons are about 10 -15 m The size of electrons and quarks has not been measured, but they are at least 1000 times smaller than a proton

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What is Light? Properties of light Reflection, Refraction A property of both particles and waves Interference and Diffraction Young’s double slits A Property of Waves Only Polarisation A Property of Waves Only

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Classical Physics Light is a wave Young’s Double Slit Experiment Faraday’s experiments Maxwell’s equations

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The Birth of the Quantum Max Planck The energy contained in radiation is related to the frequency of the radiation by the relationship n is a positive integer called the quantum number f is the frequency of the oscillation A discreet packet of energy, later to become known as “a photon”

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Implications of Planck’s Law The energy levels of the molecules must be discreet Only transitions by an amount E=hf are allowed The implication is that light is discreet or quantised These quantum levels are now known as number states 4321043210 energy 4hf 3hf 2hf 1hf 0 energyn

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Photoelectric effect When light strikes the cathode, electrons are emitted Electrons moving between the two plates constitute a current

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Photoelectric Effect Explanation Einstein: the quanta of energy are in fact localised “particle like” energy packets Each having an energy given by hf Emitted electrons will have an energy given by Where is known as the “work function” of the material

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Properties of matter Consists of discreet particles Atoms, Molecules etc. Matter has momentum (mass) A well defined trajectory Does not diffract or interfere 1 particle + 1 particle = 2 particles

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Louis de Broglie 1892 - 1987

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Wave Properties of Matter In 1923 Louis de Broglie postulated that perhaps matter exhibits the same “duality” that light exhibits Perhaps all matter has both characteristics as well For photons, Which says that the wavelength of light is related to its momentum Making the same comparison for matter we find…

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Quantum Theory Particles act like waves?! The best we can do is predict the probability that something will happen. Heisenberg Dirac Schrodinger

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Quantum mechanics Wave-particle duality Waves and particles have interchangeable properties This is an example of a system with complementary properties The mechanics for dealing with systems when these properties become important is called “Quantum Mechanics”

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Measurement disturbes the system The Uncertainty Principle

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Classical physics Measurement uncertainty is due to limitations of the measurement apparatus There is no limit in principle to how accurate a measurement can be made Quantum Mechanics There is a fundamental limit to the accuracy of a measurement determined by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle If a measurement of position is made with precision x and a simultaneous measurement of linear momentum is made with precision p, then the product of the two uncertainties can never be less than h/2

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The Uncertainty Principle Virtual particles: created due to the UP

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In Search of the Higgs Boson Higgs boson is “cosmic molasses” – the Holy Grail of particle physics Interactions with the Higgs Field are theorized to give all the particles their masses LHC detectors have confirmed or disprove initial hints for Higgs at E=115 GeV Confirmed 2013, Nobel 2014

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