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1 LIVEDIFFERENCE presents: Professor Danielle Allen Beyond Integration: Building a Connected Society LIVEDIFFERENCE.GROUP.SHEF.AC.UK.

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Presentation on theme: "1 LIVEDIFFERENCE presents: Professor Danielle Allen Beyond Integration: Building a Connected Society LIVEDIFFERENCE.GROUP.SHEF.AC.UK."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 LIVEDIFFERENCE presents: Professor Danielle Allen Beyond Integration: Building a Connected Society LIVEDIFFERENCE.GROUP.SHEF.AC.UK

2 DANIELLE S. ALLEN- INSTITUTE FOR ADVANCED STUDY BEYOND INTEGRATION BUILDING A CONNECTED SOCIETY

3 1. A word about democracy The purpose of democracy is to empower individual citizens and give them sufficient control over their lives to protect themselves from domination. In its ideal form, democracies empower each and all such that none can dominate any of the others, nor any one group, another group of citizens. But political equality is not merely freedom from domination. The best way to avoid being dominated is to help build the world in which one lives. The point of political equality is not merely to secure spaces free from domination but also to engage all members of a community equally in the work of creating and constantly re-creating that community. Political equality is equal political empowerment. Ideally, if political equality exists, citizens become co-creators of their shared world. Freedom from domination and the opportunity for co- creation maximize the space available for individual and collective flourishing. 3

4 2. A few words about equalities Political Equality Social Equality Economic Justice 4

5 2. A few words about equalities Political Equality Social Equality Mode of distributing resources compatible with full and effective political participation 5

6 2. A few words about equalities Political Equality Social Equality Increase levels of education Strengthen unions Rebuild manufacturing and supply chain jobs Develop social equality 6

7 2. A few words about equalities Political Equality A Connected Society ECONOMIC JUSTICE: Increase levels of education Strengthen unions Rebuild manufacturing and supply chain jobs Develop social equality 7

8 2. A few words about equalities Political Equality Connected institutions & services A science of association An art of association ECONOMIC JUSTICE: Increase levels of education Strengthen unions Rebuild manufacturing and supply chain jobs Develop social equality 8

9 2. A few words about equalities Political Equality: Five Facets SOCIAL EQUALITY: Connected institutions & services A science of association An art of association ECONOMIC JUSTICE: Increase levels of education Strengthen unions Rebuild manufacturing and supply chain jobs Develop social equality 9

10 2. A few words about equalities SOCIAL EQUALITY: Connected institutions & services A science of association An art of association ECONOMIC JUSTICE: Increase levels of education Strengthen unions Rebuild manufacturing and supply chain jobs Develop social equality 1.Freedom from domination 2.Egalitarian access to instrument of government 3.Epistemic egalitarianism 4.Citizenly reciprocity 5.Co-creation/co-ownership 10

11 3. A discussion of connectedness Political Equality: Five Facets A connected society Economic Justice Cultivating social networks and social relations to support economic justice and political equality 11

12 ON SOCIAL CAPITAL Pierre Bourdieu (1980): Socially useful contacts possessed by individuals; inegalitarian phenomenon. Micro analysis. James Coleman (1988): Socially valuable resources possessed by individuals deriving from social networks: trust, access to information, participation in effective sanctioning structures; can be inegalitarian or egalitarian. Micro analysis. Robert Putnam (1993): Socially valuable features of groups--for instance, high levels of trust and habits of cooperation-- deriving from the social networks internal to them. Macro analysis. Putnam claims this kind of social capital is democracy-supporting. 12

13 EGALITARIAN SOCIAL CAPITAL In distinguishing between egalitarian and inegalitarian social capital or between democratic and non-democratic social capital, the relative proportion of bonding and bridging ties within the relevant community is critical. Associational ecologies that place more emphasis on bridging relationships tend also to be more democratic and more egalitarian. It is for this reason that a connected society emphasizes specifically bridging ties. 13

14 BEYOND INTEGRATION Before and after social-network theory Community of communities Diversity and connectedness 14 PROBLEM

15 Putnam 2007: “trade-off between diversity and community” can at best be “ameliorated.” 15

16 R. PUTNAM, BOWLING ALONE, 2000 Figure 8: Average Membership Rate in Thirty-two National Chapter-Based Associations,

17 R. PUTNAM, BOWLING ALONE, 2000 Figure 79: Guesstimated Explanation for Civic Disengagement,

18 A CHANGED LAW OF ASSOCIATION Jaycees case, ; Rotary case “the State’s compelling interests in eliminating discrimination against women and in assuring them equal access to public accommodations... extends to the acquisition of leadership skills and business contacts, as well as tangible goods and services” (U.S. Supreme Court Case, Rotary International 481 U.S. 537 [1987]: , emphasis added). The Court as a whole importantly interpreted the right to equal protection and non-discrimination to apply to the distribution of social capital. The Court thus conceptually distinguished between inegalitarian and egalitarian distributions of social capital, and endorsed the latter as the constitutionally acceptable variant. A CHALLENGE 18

19 SCIENCE AND ART OF ASSOCIATION A.Tocqueville, Democracy in America, B.Vol. II, Part 2, ch. 5 19

20 20

21 Median membership decline for whole group of associations: 58% Median membership decline for groups already gender integrated or legally protected: 18% Median membership decline for groups already gender integrated or legally protected (with agricultural groups and NAACP removed): 12% Single Success Story: Veterans of Foreign Wars 21

22 ART OF ASSOCIATION Learning to bridge (D. Allen, Talking to Strangers) “political friendship” Learning to bond in ways that facilitate bridging: “One can’t build the habits of political friendship, if one hasn’t previously built the kinds of habits of intimate friendship that would effectively support an openness to bridging relationships. In other words, two kinds of human development are necessary in contexts of intimate association: on the one hand, learning of the practices of non-domination and non-oppression (Young 1990, Pettit 1997, Allen 2004a, Anderson 2010) and, on the other, learning of receptivity to bridging relationships (Allen 2004a).” 22

23 THE MATERIALS With regard to identifying practices of non-domination and non-oppression in associations of intimacy, we need to draw together scholarship in psychology and human development (e.g. Bromberg 2011) as well as in the sociology of learning (Levinson 2012, Laden 2013). With regard to receptivity to bridging, we need to draw on scholarship in interpretation studies, language learning theory, educational sociology, studies of organizing, and recognition. (e.g. Galison 1997); Suárez- Orozco & Suárez-Orozco 2013; Stout 2005, 2010, Moglen 2013, DuBois 1903, Young 1996, Ober 2008, Allen 2004b). 23

24 THE FUTURE OF EQUALITY POLITICAL EQUALITY SOCIAL EQUALITY: Connected institutions & services A science and art of association ECONOMIC JUSTICE 24

25 REFERENCES Allen, D. 2004a. Talking to Strangers. Chicago: University of Chicago Press b. “A Multilingual America?” Soundings 87(3-4): Bourdieu, P “Le capital social. Notes provisoires.” Actes Rech Sci Soc. 31: Bromberg, P. M The Shadow of the Tsunami: the Growth of the Relational Mind. New York: Routledge. Coleman J. Social capital in the creation of human capital. Am J Sociol 1988; 94: S95–120. de Tocqueville, A [ ]. P. Bradley, ed. Democracy in America. New York: Vintage Classics. DuBois, W.E.B Souls of Black Folk. In W.E.B. DuBois: Writings. Library of America. Galison, P. (1997). Image & logic: A material culture of microphysics. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Honneth, A “Integrity and Disrespect: Principles of a Conception of Morality Based on a Theory of Recognition.” Political Theory. 20(2): Laden, A “Learning to be Equal.” In Allen and Reich, Education, Justice, and Democracy, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013: Levinson, M No Citizen Left Behind. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Moglen, S “Sharing Knowledge, Practicing Democracy: A Vision for the Twenty-First-Century University.” In Allen and Reich, Education, Justice, and Democracy, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013: Ober, J Democracy and Knowledge. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Putnam, Robert “Bowling Alone: America’s Declining Social Capital.” Journal of Democracy. 6(1): Bowling Alone. New York: Simon and Schuster “E Pluribus Unum: Diversity and Community in the Twenty-First Century.” Scandinavian Political Studies. 30(2): Stout, J Democracy and Tradition. Princeton: Princeton University Press Blessed are the Organized. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Suárez-Orozco, C. and M. Suárez-Orozco “Conferring Disadvantage: Immigration, Schools, and the Family.” In Allen and Reich, Education, Justice, and Democracy, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013: Szreter, S. and M. Woolcock “Health by association? Social capital, social theory, and the political economy of public health.” Int. J. Epidemiol. 33 (4): U.S. House. Proceedings of the 45 th National Encampment of the Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States. Aug , (H. Doc. 182) Text from: Congressional Documents. Available from: ProQuest Congressional; Accessed: 1/27/ Proceedings of the 79th National Convention of the Veterans of Foreign Wars of the U.S. (H. Doc ) Text from: Congressional Documents. Available from ProQuest Congressional; Accessed: 1/27/12. U.S. Supreme Court Roberts v Jaycees, 468 U.S Board of Directors, Rotary International v. Rotary Club of Duarte. 481 U.S Van Oorschot, W., W. Arts, and J. Gelissen. “Social Capital in Europe: Measurement and Social and Regional Distribution of a Multifaceted Phenomenon.” Acta Sociologica. 49(2): Young, I Justice and the Politics of Difference. Princeton: Princeton University Press “Communication and the Other: Beyond Deliberative Democracy.” In S. Benhabib, ed., Democracy and Difference: Contesting the Boundaries of the Political. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 25

26 This presentation constitutes work-in-progress. Please send any comments, corrections, suggestions, or questions to 26


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