Presentation on theme: "Social Cognition Chapter 20. What are Attitudes? Beliefs and feelings about objects, people and events that lead people to behave in certain ways."— Presentation transcript:
Social Cognition Chapter 20
What are Attitudes? Beliefs and feelings about objects, people and events that lead people to behave in certain ways.
How do Attitudes develop? Conditioning Observational Learning Cognitive evaluation Cognitive Anchors –Persistent beliefs that shape the ways in which he/she sees the world and interprets events
When you combine attitudes and behavior what happens? When behavior follows attitudes People usually watch what they like on TV! Employees usually avoid jobs they don’t like to do.
When you combine attitudes and behavior what happens? When attitudes follow behavior Attitude to your church Doesn’t necessarily correlate with your church attendance prejudice towards a particular race do not predict accurately actual behavior
What is Persuasion? Direct attempt to influence other people’s attitudes Used Car Salesman Telephone Sales Campaign Supporters
What are some Methods of Persuasion? Central Route- using evidence and logical arguments to persuade people Peripheral route- indirect, attempts to associate objects, people, or events with positive or negative cues.
How do some people deliver such messages of persuasion? Two sided Argument -people present not only their side of the argument but also the opposition’s side. Emotional Appeals -persuade by arousing such feelings as loyalty, desire, or fear rather than by convincing through evidence and logic.
What type of people deliver these messages of persuasion? Experts Trustworthy Physically attractive Similar to their audience
When are people more receptive to persuasion? When they are in a good mood or a bad mood? A good mood, they are more likely to accept the persuasive message. Wouldn’t you ask your parents something when they are in a good mood?
Are persuasive appeals specific to the audience they are targeting? Yes. Take the presidential elections, do they run the same messages on MTV as they would on the Food Network?
Are people always persuaded by appeals made to them? No. There are some people that have Sales resistance. –Sales resistance is the ability to turn down requests to buy products or service or make donations.
What is prejudice? A generalized attitude toward a specific group of people
What are stereotypes? Unchanging oversimplified, and usually distorted beliefs about groups of people
How many blondes does it take to milk a cow? Five - one to hold the udder, and four to lift and the cow up and down.
What are two reasons people develop stereotypes? A way to organize information about their social world They assume that those who are different are similar
How can stereotypes be harmful? They ignore people’s individual natures and assign traits to them on the basis of the group which they belong.
Are there positive stereotypes? Yes Belief that the members of a particular group are good at something
What is discrimination? The unfair treatment of individual because they are different
What is likely to happen to people that experience discrimination? They may begin to see themselves as inferior.
What are five causes of Prejudice Exaggerating differences Justifying economic status Social learning Victimizing Scapegoating
Exaggerating Differences People tend to prefer people that are similar to themselves. People who different in one or several ways- in skin color or religion, for example- are often assumed to have attitudes and customs that are more different than they really are.
Justifying economic status People tend to develop prejudice against those who are not in the same economic group. May believe that people who are worse off than themselves work less hard or are less motivated to succeed.
Social Learning Children, like adults, acquire many attitudes from other people. They are especially likely to acquire the attitudes fo their parents. Children tend to imitate their parents, and parents reinforce their children when they do.
Vicitimization Sometimes people who are the victims of prejudice feel empathy for others who are discriminated against. However, this is not always the case. In fact, some victims of prejudice try to gain a sense of power and pride by asserting their superiority over groups that are even worse off then themselves.
What is scapegoating? An individual or group that is blamed for problems of others because the real cause of the problems is too complex, powerful. Or remote to be addressed.An individual or group that is blamed for problems of others because the real cause of the problems is too complex, powerful. Or remote to be addressed.
W.E.B.DuBois Why did the incident described by W.E.B. DuBois affect him so deeply? –It was the first time that DuBois realized he was different and that many opportunities were denied him as a result. How was DuBois’ reaction to racial inequality the same as that of other African American youths of his time? –Many other African American youths of his time responded by fitting in, giving up, or becoming bitter and angry. How was DuBois’ reaction to racial inequality different from that of other African American youths of his time? –His reaction was to try to earn, through hard work and cleverness, the things he was denied because of his race, and to fight inequality
How can prejudice be overcome? Increased contact among members of different groups Speak up when others act out Make a conscious effort to treat others courteously
What is social perception? The ways which people perceive one anotherThe ways which people perceive one another
What is the primacy effect? The tendency for people to form opinions of others on the basis of first impressions.The tendency for people to form opinions of others on the basis of first impressions.
What is the recency effect? Occurs when people change their opinions of others on the basis of recent interactions.Occurs when people change their opinions of others on the basis of recent interactions.
What is the attribution theory? People tend to explain the behavior of others in terms of either dispositional or personalityPeople tend to explain the behavior of others in terms of either dispositional or personality
What is the Actor-observer bias? People who attribute the behavior of others to dispositional or external behaviors.People who attribute the behavior of others to dispositional or external behaviors.
Why does the actor- observer bias occur? It occurs when we judge people only by the behavior we witness and people’s behavior may not always be a true reflection of their personalities.It occurs when we judge people only by the behavior we witness and people’s behavior may not always be a true reflection of their personalities.
What is fundamental attribution error? The tendency to overestimate the effect of dispositional causes for another persons behavior and to underestimate the effect of situational causes.The tendency to overestimate the effect of dispositional causes for another persons behavior and to underestimate the effect of situational causes.
What is self-serving bias? The tendency to view one’s successes as stemming from internal factors and one’s failure as stemming from external factorsThe tendency to view one’s successes as stemming from internal factors and one’s failure as stemming from external factors
What are some forms of nonverbal communication? Facial expressionsFacial expressions GesturesGestures PosturePosture The distance we keep from othersThe distance we keep from others
Who is more likely to use physical contact in Americans, Men or Women? American women are more likely to use physical contact.American women are more likely to use physical contact.
When is touching inappropriate? When it is forced and when it is done in certain places or in certain ways.When it is forced and when it is done in certain places or in certain ways.
What are two types of eye contact and what do they convey? GazingGazing –Eagerness or attention. It shows liking or friendliness StaringStaring –Anger. It does not show that someone likes someone and its is not friendly.
What is attraction? A kind of attitude of liking.A kind of attitude of liking.
What is universal trait that is widely shared in the ideals of beauty? A smiling person is more attractive than a frowning personA smiling person is more attractive than a frowning person
What is the matching hypothesis? The view that people tend to choose other people similar to themselves in attractiveness and attitudes in the formation of interpersonal relationships.The view that people tend to choose other people similar to themselves in attractiveness and attitudes in the formation of interpersonal relationships.
Friends and partners tend to be similar in what ways (according to Michael)? RaceRace EthnicityEthnicity AgeAge Level of educationLevel of education ReligionReligion
What are two reasons that we tend to choose friends and partners with backgrounds that are similar to our own? We tend to live among people who are similar to ourselvesWe tend to live among people who are similar to ourselves They tend to have the same attitudes as the personThey tend to have the same attitudes as the person
What is reciprocity? The mutual exchange of feelings or attitudesThe mutual exchange of feelings or attitudes
Why do most people value friends? Because of the rewards that friendships offersBecause of the rewards that friendships offers
What is intimacy? Closeness and CaringCloseness and Caring
What is passion? Feelings of romantic and sexual attractionFeelings of romantic and sexual attraction
What is commitment? A pledge or promiseA pledge or promise
Type of Love: Liking Formula: Intimacy aloneFormula: Intimacy alone Description: true friendships without passion or long term commitmentDescription: true friendships without passion or long term commitment
Type of Love: Companionate love Formula: Intimacy + CommitmentFormula: Intimacy + Commitment Description: Long term committed friendships such as a marriage in which passion has fadedDescription: Long term committed friendships such as a marriage in which passion has faded
Type of Love: Empty Love Formula: Commitment AloneFormula: Commitment Alone Description: Decision to love each other without intimacy or passionDescription: Decision to love each other without intimacy or passion
Type of Love: Fatuous Love Formula: Passion + CommitmentFormula: Passion + Commitment Description: Commitment based on passion but without time for intimacy to develop: shallow relationship such as a whirlwind courtship.Description: Commitment based on passion but without time for intimacy to develop: shallow relationship such as a whirlwind courtship.
Type of Love: Infatuation Formula: Passion AloneFormula: Passion Alone Description: Passionate, obsessive love at first sight without intimacy or commitmentDescription: Passionate, obsessive love at first sight without intimacy or commitment
Type of Love: Romantic Love Formula: Intimacy + PassionFormula: Intimacy + Passion Description: Lovers physically and emotionally attracted to each other but without commitment as in summer romance.Description: Lovers physically and emotionally attracted to each other but without commitment as in summer romance.
Type of Love: Consummate Love Formula: Intimacy + passion + commitmentFormula: Intimacy + passion + commitment Description: A complete love consisting of all three components ( an ideal difficult to attain)Description: A complete love consisting of all three components ( an ideal difficult to attain)