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Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION TO FOODBORNE PATHOGENS 1120"— Presentation transcript:

Steven C Seideman, PhD Extension Food Processing Specialist Cooperative Extension Service University of Arkansas This course is entitled “ Introduction to FoodBorne Pathogens”

2 OBJECTIVES Discuss importance of foodborne pathogens.
Discuss the classes of foodborne pathogens. Discuss methods of controlling foodborne pathogens. Read the slide

3 Basic Microbiology Microbiology is the study of small ( micro), biological organisms, hence the word “MicroBiology” This module is extremely basic and is not intended to make the reader an expert but will make one aware of the subject. This module only discusses foodborne pathogens. Spoilage bacteria are discussed elsewhere in the series. Read the slide

4 Most foodborne pathogens only cause flu-like symptoms but some can be fatal. All can be prevented.
Photo courtesy USDA

5 OUR FOOD SUPPLY Although it may appear from the following information that there are numerous microorganisms that may be in foods, in actuality, our food supply is safer than any other country in the world and safer than any other time in the history of mankind. The number of cases of foodborne illnesses caused by pathogens can be drastically reduced through the use of certain food handling practices. Read the slide

6 Americans trust that their food will be safe, nutritious, convienent and economical. We must honor that trust and strive to reduce the number of incidences of foodborne illnesses that occur each year. Photo courtesy of USDA

7 IMPORTANCE The estimated illnesses from foodborne pathogens is range from 6 million to 81 million people per year. Keep in mind that there are about 286 million people in the U.S. The estimated annual medical costs, productivity losses and costs of premature deaths due to the 5 major foodborne illnesses is estimated at $6.9 billion (Crutchfield & Roberts, 2000). Read the slide

8 Pathogen Illnesses per Year
Bacteria = 4,420,000 Parasites = 1,270,658 Viral = 9,278,500 The total number of illnesses from foodborne pathogens per year range from 6 to 81 million. It is hard to get an accurate number since most cases are not reported and many are never diagnosed. Read the slide

9 IMPORTANCE The CDC estimates that 78% of pathogen outbreaks occur as a result of poor food handling practices in commercial and institutional establishments while only 22% occur due to food handling practices in private residences. (Olsen et al 2000). Read the slide

10 CLASSES OF PATHOGENS Bacteria Molds Yeast Parasites Viruses Mad Cow
Read the slide

11 Most Common Bacterial Pathogens
Bacteria #cases per year Campylobacter spp ,963,200 Salmonella ,257,125 Clostridium perfringens ,000 Staphylococcus ,000 E Coli (non-0157H7) ,000 Shigella ,800 Yersinia enterocolitica ,400 Streptococcus ,000 Read the slide

12 Most Common Bacterial Pathogens-Continued
Bacteria #cases per year E. Coli 0157;H ,475 Bacillus cereus ,000 Vibrio spp ,000 Listeria monocytogenes ,500 Clostridium botulinum

13 Most Common Parasitic Pathogens
Parasite #cases/year Giardia lamblia ,000 Toxoplasma gondi ,000 Cryptosporidium parvum ,000 Cyclospora cayetanensis ,637 Trichinella spiralis Read the slide

14 Most Common Foodborne Viruses
Virus #cases per year Norwalk-like viruses ,200,000 Rotovirus ,000 Astrovirus ,000 Hepatitis A ,150 Read the slide

15 The Percentage of Deaths from Foodborne Pathogens
Bacteria Parasites Viruses % Deaths 72% 21% 7%

16 The 5 Specific Pathogens that Account for 98% of Estimated Deaths
Salmonella Listeria Toxoplasma Norwalk-like viruses Campylobacter E.Coli 0157;H7 % Deaths 31% 28% 21% 7% 5% 3%

17 UPDATE After looking at the numbers, it would appear that viruses are a major problem but one has to remember that it is very hard to get an accurately identified source when working with viruses. Many viruses cannot live outside a host animal and are hard to count. In addition, the vast majority of cases are due to Norwalk-like viruses. Parasites do not represent a major category of foodborne illness. Bacteria are the single largest concern for food processors. Read the slide

18 Bacteria Bacteria are single celled organisms which takes nutrients through its cell wall. Bacteria are responsible by the vast majority of foodborne illnesses. Bacteria can be divided into 3 types; *Harmful or pathogenic. *Beneficial *Spoilage Read the slide

19 Bacteria Bacteria grow and reproduce logarithmically
Under the right conditions, bacteria can reproduce very rapidly. Bacteria can be killed by high temperatures. Bacteria grow slower at low temperatures. Bacteria can survive freezing. Some bacteria are spore-formers and are very resistant to conditions that kill most bacteria (e.g heat, drying, chemicals) Read the slide

There are 6 conditions affecting bacterial growth and can be remembered by the anagram FAT TOM. *Food *Acidity * Time *Temperature *Oxygen * Moisture Read the slide

21 Conditions Affecting Bacterial Growth
FOOD * Bacteria need food to reproduce. *High protein foods and moist starchy foods promote bacterial growth but any food can be potentially risky is not handled properly. Read the slide

22 Red meat, poultry and seafood are considered high protein foods and promote the rapid growth of bacteria. Photo courtesy of USDA

23 Conditions Affecting Bacterial Growth
ACIDITY pH-measure of acidity or alkalinity. (pH =7 is neutral; 1=acid; 14=basic). Most bacteria prefer a pH of Most bacteria will not grow at a pH of 4.6 or less (acid). This is why fermented foods such as sauerkraut (fermented cabbage) and fermented sausages were historically used in Europe. Read the slide

24 pH RANGES OF BACTERIA Bacteria Molds Yeasts Salmonella
Clostridium Botulinum Clostridium perfringens Listeria monocytogenes Campylobacter pH Range 0.5-11 Read the slide

25 pH RANGES FOR FOODS Food Meat Chicken Fish Fruit Apples Grapes
Vegetables Carrot Corn Dairy Milk Cheese pH Range 7.3 Read the slide

26 Conditions Affecting Bacterial Growth
Temperature Bacteria proliferation can be controlled by both heat and cold. Bacteria generally do not grow at freezer temperatures but they can survive. Use of refrigeration temperatures (30-45F) slows down the rate of bacterial proliferation. The colder the better. Read the slide

Degrees F 250 212 160 148 137 140-40 90 70 60 40 32 28 14 Bacterial Action Resistant spores killed Boiling point of water Resistant Salmonella kill Vegetative cells killed Trichina killed DANGER ZONE Bacteria double-20 min Bacteria double-1 hour Bacteria double-2 hours Bacteria double –6 hours Bacteria double-20 hours Bacteria double –60 hours Lower limit for bacteria Read the slide

28 The Use of Heat There are two important words to define;
*Pasteurization refers to the cooking of food where only a certain number of bacteria are killed. Pasteurization does not render the product sterile. *Sterilization refers to the total destruction of all living organisms and is only used in canned shelf- stable items. Read the slide

29 The Use of Heat Clostridium botulinum is a bacteria that can form spores that are very resistant to heat. It produces a toxin that causes paralysis and is often fatal. It grows well in an anaerobic (no oxygen), warm (60-115F) environment. Unless a food goes through the canning procedure (cook in a retort or pressure device of F for several hours) it is assumed to have Clostridium spores are present . Read the slide

30 Cooking to at least 160F is necessary to insure that most bacteria are killed
Photo courtesy of USDA

31 The Use of Heat Remember that Clostridium grow best at F so you must cool all foods fast after heating. It is recommended to chill foods down from 140F to 40F within 4 hours. Remember to assume that all foods except shelf-stable canned foods and high acid foods contain Clostridium spores and treat them with the proper precautions. Read the slide

32 Conditions Affecting Bacterial Growth
TIME Under optimal conditions, some bacteria can double every 20 minutes. The colder the storage temperature, the longer the potential shelflife. Potentially hazardous foods should not remain in the danger zone (140-40F) for more than 4 hours during the entire food handling process. Read the slide

33 Conditions Affecting Bacterial Growth
Oxygen Some bacteria require oxygen to grow (aerobic). Some bacteria will only grow in the absence of oxygen (anaerobic). Some bacteria can grow either with or without oxygen (facultative). Most pathogenic bacteria are in this category. Read the slide

34 Conditions Effecting Bacterial Growth
Moisture The amount of water available in food for chemical reactions and microbial growth is called water activity (Aw). Water activity is measured from 0 (totally dry) to 1.0 (pure water). Disease-causing bacteria can only grow in foods that have a water activity higher than 0.91. The water activity available in foods can be reduced by freezing, dehydration or adding salt or sugar. Read the slide

Meat, fish, sausage, milk Cheese, cured meat (ham), fruit juice conc Fermented sausages (salami), dry cheeses, margarine Juice conc, syrups, flour, fruit cakes, honey, jellies, preserves Cookies, crackers, bread crusts Aw/ Microorganism Bacteria Bacteria Yeasts Molds No microorganisms proliferate Read the slide

36 Potentially Hazardous Foods (PHF)
Defined as a food that is natural or synthetic and that requires temperature control because it is in a form capable of supporting rapid microbial growth. Read the slide

37 Potentially Hazardous Foods
Are most often responsible for outbreaks of foodborne illness Includes foods with high protein content such as meat, poultry, fish and dairy products. Includes some low-protein foods, moist starchy foods as well as cooked rice, coleslaw, garlic in oil, and sliced watermelon. PHF’s generally have near-neutral pH levels (5.0 or higher) and a high moisture content (water activity higher than 0.91). Read the slide

38 Potentially Hazardous Foods
Meat & Meat products Poultry Fish Shellfish Raw eggs Milk Dairy products Garlic-in-oil mixtures Gravies Creamed soups Custards/Puddings Protein salads Sauces (esp cream sauces) Cream-filled baked goods. Read the slide

39 PATHOGENS OF INTEREST Salmonella spp Shigella spp
Clostridium perfringens Staphylococcus aureus Campylobacter jejuni Bacillus cereus Listeria monocytogenes Clostridium botulinum Eschericha coli 0157:H7 Vibrio parahaemolyticus and vulnificus Yersinia enterocolitica Read the slide

40 80-90% of Foodborne Illnesses from Bacteria come from just 4 Bacteria
Campylobacter Salmonella Clostridium perfringens Staphylococcus aureus

Diphtheria Corynebacterium diphtheriae Tuberculosis Microbacterium tuberculosis Scarlet/Rheumatic fever- Streptococcus pyogenes Cholera Vibrio cholerae Gonorrhea Neisseria gonorrhea Plaque Yersinia pestis Read the slide

42 FOODBORNE DISEASES Defined as a disease that is carried or transmitted to humans by food. The 3 types of foodborne diseases are: *Foodborne infection *Foodborne intoxication or poisoning *Foodborne toxico-infection. Read the slide

43 Foodborne Infection Foodborne infection results from eating food containing living harmful microorganisms. The microorganisms multiply in the body, invades and penetrates the intestinal walls causing illness. Read the slide

44 FoodBorne Infections Salmonella Listeria monocytogenes
Campylobacter jejuni Yersinia enterocolitica

45 Foodborne Intoxication
Foodborne intoxication or food poisoning resulting from eating food containing toxins or poisons produced by microorganisms that may not be present anymore. Examples include; Read the slide

46 FoodBorne Intoxication
Staphylococcus aureus Bacillus cereus Clostridium botulinum

47 Foodborne Toxico-Mediated Infection
Foodborne toxico-mediated infection results from eating a food containing a large amount of disease-causing microorganisms, which grow in the intestines and produce toxins. Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus cereus, E. Coli 0157;H7 and Shigella are examples. Read the slide

48 Let’s now go through some of the more common bacterial pathogens in food
Read the slide

49 SALMONELLOSIS Caused by the bacteria Salmonella.
Salmonella is non-spore forming, is facultative and some strains can grow at pH range below 4.5. Causes a foodborne infection. Symptoms include abdominal cramps, headache, nausea, fever, diarrhea and sometimes vomiting. May cause severe dehydration in infants and elderly. Read the slide

50 Salmonella Enteriditis
Salmonella Enteriditis is the most common specie Photo courtesy of USDA

51 Salmonellosis Sources of contamination include water, soil, insects, domestic and wild animals and the human intestinal tract. Foods that have been associated with Salmonella contamination include; *High protein foods (meat, poultry, fish and milk). *Egg and egg products such as custards, sauces and pastry creams. *Raw produce that has been contaminated by fecal matter. Read the slide

52 Salmonellosis Preventative measures include;
*Avoid cross contamination *Refrigerate foods properly *Thoroughly cook all foods to minimum internal temperatures. *Properly cool meat and egg products after cooking. *Ensure that employees avoid contaminating food and food-contact surfaces by practicing good personal hygiene. Read the slide

53 Salmonella Typhi Say nothing Photo courtesy of USDA

54 SHIGELLOSIS Shigella do not produce spores, are facultative and some strains produce shiga toxin. Shigellosis is a toxin-mediated infection. Symptoms include diarrhea (may be bloody), abdominal pain, fever, nausea, cramps, vomiting, chills, fatigue and dehydration. Infant day-care centers are a common source Read the slide

55 Shigellosis Preventative measures include; *Avoid cross contamination
*Ensure food handlers use good personal hygiene *Use approved water source. *Control flies *Cool foods rapidly. Read the slide

56 LISTERIOSIS Listeria monocytogenes does not form spores, is facultative, resists freezing, drying and heat and can grow at refrigeration temperatures. Is considered a foodborne infection. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, persistent fever, chills, backache, meningitis, encephalitis and septicemia. Most often affects infants, pregnant women and their fetuses, immune-compromised and organ transplant patients.. Read the slide

57 Listeria Monocytogenes
Say nothing Photo courtesy of USDA

58 LISTERIOSIS Foods associated with Listeria include;
*Unpasteurized milk and milk products. *Raw vegetables *Poultry, meat, seafood *Prepared and ready to eat foods *Pregnant women should avoid in-store sliced deli meats, soft cheeses and smoked salmon. Read the slide

59 LISTERIOSIS Preventative measures include;
*Use only pasteurized milk and dairy products. *Cook foods to proper internal temperatures. *Avoid cross contamination. *Clean and sanitize food contact surfaces. Read the slide

Clostridium perfringens form spores and is anaerobic. Causes a toxin-mediated infection. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, dehydration (fever, headache and vomiting are usually absent). Sources of contamination include human and animal intestinal tracts and soil (especially contaminated with feces) Read the slide

61 Clostridium Perfringens
Foods associated with contamination include meat, meat products, poultry, stew, gravy and beans that have been improperly cooked. The most common preventive methods include the control of time and temperature of cooking and cooling, reheating cooked foods and adequate refrigeration. Read the slide

62 Staphylococcal Food Poisoning
Staphylococcus aureas does not form spores, is facultative and is very heat sensitive. Causes a foodborne intoxication or poisoning. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea. Sources of contamination include skin, hair, nose, throat, infected sores (boils & whiteheads) and animals. Read the slide

63 Staphylococcal Food Poisoning
Foods associated with contamination include meat, poultry, egg products, milk and dairy products, potato salad, custards and salad dressings. Preventative measures include; *Properly cook all foods. *Practice good personal hygiene *Properly refrigerate all foods. *Rapidly cool prepared foods. Read the slide

64 BACILLUS CEREUS Bacillus cereus forms spores and is facultative.
It causes both toxin-mediated infections (causing diarrhea) and intoxication (causing vomiting). Symptoms; *Infection-watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, pain, nausea. *Intoxication-nausea and vomiting; sometimes abdominal cramps and diarrhea. Read the slide

65 Bacillus Cereus Sources of contamination include soil and dust, cereal crops, skin infection (whiteheads on skin). Cooking kills the vegetative cells but can cause spores to germinate, making reheated foods a problem. Foods involved; *Infection-meat, milk, vegetables, fish. *Intoxication-rice products, starchy foods, sauces, puddings, soups. Read the slide

66 Bacillus Cereus Preventative methods include;
*Careful time and temperature control *Quick chilling methods to cool foods. *Adequate cooking of foods. Read the slide

67 BOTULISM Clostridium botulinum forms spores and is anaerobic.
Causes food intoxication or poisoning. Symptoms include vomiting and constipation or diarrhea initially with progressive fatigue, weakness, vertigo, blurred or double vision, breathing paralysis, dry mouth eventually leading to paralysis and death. Read the slide

68 Botulism Has been found in almost all foods but initially coming from soil and water. Preventative methods include; *Treat all foods as if present. *Keep cold foods cold. *Be careful of home canned foods. *Use time/temperature control of large, bulky foods. *Rapidly cool leftovers. Read the slide

69 CAMPYLOBACTERIOSIS Campylobacter jejuni does not form spores.
Causes a foodborne infection. Symptoms include bloody diarrhea, fever, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, headache and muscle pain. Sources of contamination include domestic and wild animals. Read the slide

70 Campylobacter Fetus Say nothing Photo courtesy of USDA

71 Campylobacteriosis Foods associated with contamination include unpasteurized milk and dairy products, raw poultry and non-chlorinated or fecal-contaminated water. Preventative methods include; *Thoroughly cook food to minimum safe internal temperatures. *Use only pasteurized milk and dairy products. *Use approved water source *Avoid cross-contamination. Read the slide

72 Escherichia Coli 0157:H7 E. Coli does not form spores, is facultative and has survived freezing and low pH (below pH 4.0). Can grow at refrigeration temperatures. Causes a toxin-mediated infection. Symptoms include diarrhea (may become bloody), severe abdominal cramps, kidney failure and possibly death. Source of contamination is from the GI tract of animals and humans. Read the slide

73 E.Coli 0157:H7 Food associated include: *Raw or undercooked meat and
poultry. *Unpasteurized milk and dairy products and fruit juices. *Vegetables from manure fertilized fields. *Non-chlorinated water. Read the slide

74 E. Coli 0157:H7 Preventative methods include:
*Thoroughly cook all foods to safe temperatures. *Beware of unpasteurized dairy products and fruit juices. *Use approved water sources. *Avoid cross-contamination. Read the slide

75 VIBRIO Spp Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus do not form spores; More common in warmer months. Results in foodborne infection. Symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, headache and sometimes death in immuno-compromised individuals. Read the slide

76 Vibrio Spp Most commonly found in oysters and shellfish from the Gulf of Mexico. Foods involved are raw or partially cooked oysters and shellfish. Preventative measures include; *Avoid eating raw or undercooked seafood. *Avoid cross-contamination. *Keep all seafood frozen until ready to eat. Read the slide

77 YERSINIOSIS Yersinia enterocolitica does not form spores, is facultative, can survive at a pH below 4.5 and can grow at refrigeration temperatures. Causes a foodborne infection usually in young people ( years old). Symptoms include fever and severe abdominal pain (mimics appendicitis). Possibly diarrhea, headache, sore throat or vomiting. Read the slide

78 Yersiniosis Source is soil, water, domestic and wild animals, rodents.
Foods most commonly involved include meats, oysters and fish, unpasteurized milk and dairy products and non-chlorinated water. Read the slide

79 Yersiniosis Preventative measures include;
*Thoroughly cook foods to minimum safe internal temperatures *Avoid cross-contamination. *Use approved water source. Read the slide


81 Fungi Fungi are larger than bacteria.
Prefer foods that are high in sugar or starch. Are spoilage organisms that cause food to deteriorate. May produce toxic chemicals called mycotoxins. Examples are molds and yeasts. Read the slide

82 MOLD Many molds are beneficial
*Important to medicine (i.e. penicillin). *Important in food production (i.e. cheese-making). Read the slide

83 MOLD Can withstand extreme conditions;
*Molds prefer warmer temperatures but can survive and grow at cooler temperatures. *Molds have the ability to tolerate salt, sugar and acids. *Some molds produce poisons called mycotoxins which can cause cancer such as liver cancer and other illnesses. Read the slide

84 MYCOTOXINS Symptoms of aflatoxicosis include acute on-set hemorrhage and fluid buildup. Common sources of mycotoxins include moldy grain, corn, peanuts, pecans, walnuts and milk. Preventive methods include; *Keep food covered to prevent exposure to mold spores. *Purchase food from a reputable supplier. *Keep grain and nuts dry. Read the slide

85 YEASTS Spoils the quality of foods. Not usually a food safety hazard.
Requires carbohydrates and moisture to survive. Serves as an agent in fermentation and leavening. You can see the bubbles and smell/taste alcoholic characteristics. Can detract from the flavor of some foods. Easily killed by heating to 136F for 15 minutes. Read the slide

86 PARASITES Read the slide

87 PARASITES Parasites are tiny organisms that require a living host for growth and nourishment. The most common include Trichinella spiralis. Anisakis Giardia duodenalis Cryptosporidium pavum Toxoplasma gondii Cyclospora cayentanensis Read the slide

88 TRICHINOSIS Caused by the parasite Trichinella spiralis, a roundworm that burrows into the muscle of the host and causes infection. Early symptoms include nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain, occasional vomiting, swelling around the eyes and fever. Later symptoms include muscle soreness, thirst, extreme sweating, chills, bleeding and fatigue. Read the slide

89 Trichinosis Generally from meat animals that eat off the ground or in garbage dumps. Pork used to be the common vehicle to humans but proper cooking and the fact that hogs are now reared in confinement have reduced the incidence. Wild game such as bears and raccoons are the most common carriers. Read the slide

90 Trichinosis Methods of prevention include:
*Cook pork and all meats to minimum internal cooking temperatures. *Wash, rinse and sanitize equipment such as sausage grinders and utensils used in the preparation of raw pork and other meats. Read the slide

91 Anisakiasis Food sources include raw, undercooked or improperly frozen seafood, especially cod, haddock, fluke, pacific salmon, herring, flounder and fish used in sushi and sashimi Read the slide

92 Anisakiasis Preventative methods include;
*Properly freezing fish. Fish to be eaten raw should be frozen at –4F or lower for 15 hours in a blast chiller. *Avoid eating raw or partially cooked fish and shellfish. Read the slide

93 GIARDIASIS An infection resulting from the protozoan Giardia duodenalis. Symptoms include fatigue, nausea, intestinal gas, weakness, weight loss and abdominal cramps. Read the slide

94 Giardiasis Food sources include water or raw vegetables that are contaminated by animal waste or infected water. Prevention methods include; *Wash raw produce thoroughly. *Use approved water source *Ensure that food handlers practice good hygiene. Read the slide

95 TOXOPLASMOSIS Caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii.
Often there are no symptoms. When symptoms occur, they include enlarged lymph nodes in the head and neck, severe headaches, muscle pain and rash. Individuals with compromised immune systems such as HIV-infected people and pregnant women and their fetuses are at most risk. It is not passed by person to person contact. Cats are a common source. Pregnant women should avoid emptying cat litter box. Read the slide

96 Toxoplasmosis Food sources include raw or undercooked meat especially pork, lamb, venison and raw vegetables. Preventative methods include; *Avoid raw and undercooked meats *Cook meats to the minimum internal temperature so there is no pink inside. *Keep cats away from food preparation areas. *Wash hands that come in contact with soil, raw meat, cat feces and raw vegetables. Read the slide

97 CYCLOSPORIASIS Caused by the protozoan Cyclospora cayentanesis.
Symptoms include watery diarrhea, loss of appetite, weight loss, bloating, gas, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, muscle aches and fatigue. Read the slide

98 Cyclosporiasis Food sources include water, raspberries, strawberries and other fresh produce. Preventive methods include; *Thoroughly wash all produce *Use approved water source *Ensure that food handlers used good personal hygiene. Read the slide

99 VIRUSES Read the slide

100 VIRUSES Multiply only in living cells (hosts) and are fairly hard to kill while in humans. They do not multiple in food. Usually killed during the cooking process. Food may become infected after cooking by human carriers or by contaminated water. Read the slide

101 Say nothing Photo courtesy of USDA

102 Examples of Viruses Hepatitis A Norwalk Virus Rotavirus HIV Virus
Read the slide

103 Hepatitis A Virus Hepatitus A or Hepatovirus causes an infection of the liver. Symptoms include discomfort, fatigue, headache, nausea, loss of appetite, vomiting, abdominal pain and jaundice and may appear weeks/months after exposure. Transmitted to foods either by poor personal hygiene or contaminated water. Human feces is the main reservoir. Read the slide

104 Hepatitis A Virus Food sources that may be contaminated include water, ice, shellfish, cold cuts and sandwiches, milk or dairy products or any food that does not receive a further heat treatment. Also, fruits and vegetables that are washed with infected water or contaminated by infected humans or animals may contain Hepatitis A . Read the slide

105 Hepatitus A Virus Preventive methods include;
*Prevent cross contamination from hands *Ensure that food handlers practice good personal hygiene. *Clean and sanitize food contact surfaces. *Use approved water sources. Read the slide

106 Say nothing Photo courtesy of USDA

107 Norwalk Virus Gastroenteritis
The Norwalk virus agent causes an infection of the stomach and intestines. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, headache and mild fever. May appear weeks/months after exposure. Transmitted to food by either poor personal hygiene or contaminated water. Read the slide

108 Norwalk Virus Food sources that may be contaminated include water, shellfish and raw fruits and vegetables that are washed with infected water or contaminated by infected humans or animals. Read the slide

109 Norwalk Virus Preventive methods include;
*Prevention of cross contamination from hands. *Ensure that food handlers practice good personal hygiene. *Thoroughly cook foods to minimum safe internal temperatures. *Use approved water sources. Read the slide

Rotavirus causes an infection of the stomach and the intestines. Symptoms include vomiting and diarrhea, abdominal pain and mild fever. Illness more common in children than adults. Read the slide

111 Rotavirus Preventive methods include:
*Ensure food handlers practice good personal hygiene. *Thoroughly cook food to minimum safe internal temperatures. *Use approved water source. Read the slide

112 HIV VIRUS The Human Immunodeficiency Virus is NOT a foodborne illness.
HIV- infected people can work with food unless they have a secondary infection or communicable illness with symptoms including vomiting, diarrhea, fever, sore throat or jaundice. Read the slide

113 MAD COW DISEASE Mad cow disease is believed to be caused by prions which are proteins thought to originate as regular components of neurological tissues in animals. When these proteins become abnormally shaped, they are able to transform molecules of normally shaped protein with which they come in contact to the abnormal prion configuration. This process is repeated numerous times until the number of abnormally-shaped molecules causes overt illness. Read the slide

114 MAD COW DISEASE Transmission is only through nerve tissue.
Mad cow is one of a group of diseases called Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies which include; - Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease in humans -Scrapie in sheep and goats -Chronic Wasting Disease in deer and elk in Wisconsin and Colorado. Read the slide

115 References To learn more about the pathogenic bacteria, parasites , viruses and Mad cow (prions), go to the U.S. Food &Drug Administrations “Bad Bugs Book” on-line at ; Read the slide

116 Bacterial Pathogens Let’s summarize the 4 major pathogens that cause the majority of foodborne illnesses

117 Source of Bacteria that cause Foodborne Illnesses
Pathogen Campylobacter Salmonella C. Perfringens Staph. Aureus Source GI tract of mammals, raw milk, untreated water, sewage GI tract, eggs Soil, dust, sewage, GI tract On humans esp nose, hair, face

118 Transmission of Bacteria that cause Foodborne Illnesses
Pathogen Campylobacter Salmonella C. Perfringens Staph. Aureus Transmission Contaminated water, raw milk, undercooked meat, poultry or shellfish Raw or undercooked milk, dairy products, eggs, meat, poultry, food handlers “Cafeteria germ”; steam tables or room temp. Person to person contact

119 Symptoms of Bacteria that Cause Foodborne Ilnesses
Pathogen Campylobacter Salmonella C. Perfringens Staph. Aureus Symptoms Fever, headache and muscle pain, diarrhea, abdominal pain and nausea 2-5 days after eating Stomach pain, diarrhea, nausea, chills, fever, and headache 8-72 hrs after eating Diarrhea and gas pains 8-24 hrs after eating Nausea, abdominal cramps, vomiting and diarrhea 1-6 hours after eating.

120 Prevention of Foodborne Illnesses
Although this series presented a lot of information, there are several things we can do to reduce the incidences of foodborne illnesses no matter what type of microorganism we are dealing with.

121 Prevention of Foodborne Illness
1)Cook- Cook all meat, poultry and eggs to at least 160F. Other than spore-forming bacteria, all bacteria, parasites and viruses are killed quite easily with heating to 160F. 2)Avoid Cross-Contamination- Do not cross-contaminate one food with another. Keep raw food totally separated from cooked product. Clean utensils and work areas etc in between working raw and cooked product. Constantly be thinking of how microorganisms get from raw to cooked products.

122 Prevention of Foodborne Illnesses
3)Chill Foods- Keep foods cold. After cooking, chill foods as rapidly as possible. Remember that cooking has destroyed most of the bacteria but spore formers, that are resistant to cooking may become very active and can proliferate rapidly. 4)Cleaning-Wash fruits and vegetables and all foods possible. In addition, continually wash work areas. Use only treated or tested water.

123 Prevention of Foodborne Illnesses
5)Personal Hygiene- People working with foods should wash their hands regularly, wear hairnets, plastic gloves etc. In addition, food handlers should not work with food if they have a boil, open sores or feel sick themselves

124 PREVENTION By learning and following the 5 previously mentioned preventive measures, almost all foodborne illnesses can be prevented.

125 CONCLUSIONS Although it may appear from the presentation that there are numerous microorganisms that may be in our foods supply, in actuality our food supply is the the safest in the world and at any time in history. Scientific advances in microbiology and food science have provided knowledge in the control of pathogenic bacteria. Read the slide

126 CONCLUSIONS Knowledge of the bacterial control factors (FAT TOM) must be utilized by people in the food processing industry as well as food stores, restaurants and consumers at home to minimize the probability of proliferation of pathogenic bacteria that cause foodborne illnesses. Read the slide

127 CONCLUSIONS By learning and practicing the 5 preventive measures, one can drastically reduce the incidence of foodborne illnesses.



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