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Do Bugs Need Drugs? A Community Program for Wise Use of Antibiotics.

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Presentation on theme: "Do Bugs Need Drugs? A Community Program for Wise Use of Antibiotics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Do Bugs Need Drugs? A Community Program for Wise Use of Antibiotics

2 Antibiotics  Most significant discovery of modern medicine  Save millions of lives

3  Caused by overuse and misuse of antibiotics  Limits effectiveness of antibiotics  Patients with resistant infections cannot be treated Antibiotic Resistance

4  75% of antibiotics prescribed for respiratory tract infections  50% of antibiotic prescriptions are inappropriate  Most respiratory tract infections are caused by viruses  Antibiotics do not work against viruses Antibiotics in the Community

5  Canadian survey, NIPA, 2002  53% of adults believe antibiotics are effective against viruses Misconceptions

6  Health Canada, CCAR, 1997  Decrease antibiotic prescriptions for respiratory tract infections by 25% National Mandate

7  Healthcare professionals, public, students, childcare centres, seniors  Started October 1998  Multistakeholder program A Community Program for Wise Use of Antibiotics

8  Wash your hands! Handwashing is the best way to stop the spread of infections.  Not all bugs are created equal. Antibiotics work against bacteria, but not against viruses.  Use antibiotics wisely. Bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics. Key Messages

9 Handwashing

10  80% of common infections spread by hands  Most effective way to prevent the spread of respiratory tract infections

11 Good Bacteria  Good bacteria live on the skin and in the mouth and intestines  Do not cause disease  Not easily removed by handwashing  Protect against disease-causing bacteria and viruses

12 Bad Germs  Usually survive less than 24 hours  Easily removed by handwashing  Can be either bacteria or viruses  Cause disease

13 How dirty are things? University of Arizona study Tucson, Chicago, San Francisco Contamination (%) Playground44 Bus rails35 Public Restrooms25 Pens (shared)16 Vending Machines14 Public phones*13 *home phones more contaminated

14 How easy is it to transmit germs? 10 million E.coli 0157.H7  Patting contaminated ground beef 1,000 – 100,000 bacteria to hands  Touching patient shoulder  Measuring blood pressure

15 Telephone and observational handwashing surveys September 2005 / people 91% say they wash their hands 83% actually do 90% women / 75% men Do people really wash? American Society for Microbiology

16 Does it work? Ryan M, Health Naval Research Center, San Diego  Recruits ordered to wash hands at least 5 times /day  45% reduction in respiratory illness Lee M, Canadian Journal of Infection, Toronto  Nursing students washed hands at least 7 times / day  Reduced number of infections / colds

17 Karachi Study-2005 Squatter settlements Three groups:  no soap  plain soap  antimicrobial soap Groups receiving soap:  50% reduction in pneumonia  53% reduction in diarrhea  34% reduction in impetigo No benefit in using antibacterial soap

18  Before meals / food preparation  After using the toilet / helping a child use the toilet  Before and after changing diapers  After blowing nose / helping a child with a runny nose  After play or handling shared objects  Before inserting / removing contact lenses  Before flossing your teeth When to Wash Hands

19  Wet your hands  Apply soap  Rub hands together for 20 seconds Sing Twinkle, Twinkle Song  Rinse for 10 seconds  Dry with a towel  Use towel to turn off taps and open the door How to Wash Hands

20 Soap  Does not have antibiotics  Removes dirt and grease that attract bad germs  Does not promote antibacterial resistance Use plain soap

21  Antibacterial soap promotes antibiotic resistance  Antibacterial soap adds antibiotics to the enviroment  No more effective than plain soap Soap Antibacterial soap not recommended

22 Hand Drying  Removes 42% more germs than washing alone  Use clean towels  Avoid sharing towels  Hot air dryers promote bacterial growth because hands are left warm and moist

23 Handwashing Best way to stop the spread of respiratory tract infections

24 TM  Alcohol-based gels (≥ 60% alcohol)  Do not cause antibiotic resistance  Kill many bacteria and viruses  Not effective against many germs that cause diarrhea  Should not replace soap and water. Not needed in the home. Alcohol hand rubs

25 Not All Bugs Are Created Equal

26 Both viruses and bacteria cause respiratory tract infections Most respiratory tract infections are caused by viruses

27 Viral Infections  Most respiratory tract infections are caused by viruses  Viral infections make you feel sick all over your body  Colds and flu, and most sore throats, coughs and sinus infections are caused by viruses Antibiotics DO NOT work against viruses

28  Less common than viral infections  Do not spread as easily from one person to another  Usually affect only one part of the body  Pneumonia and Strep throat are caused by bacteria Antibiotics DO work against bacteria Bacterial Infections

29 Antibiotic Resistance

30  Antibiotics kill most bacteria but some are able to survive  Surviving bacteria have “antibiotic resistance”  Antibiotic resistant bacteria cannot be killed by that antibiotic

31 Antibiotic Resistance  Taking antibiotics when they are not needed makes your good bacteria resistant  Antibiotic resistance can be transferred from one bacterium to another, including bad bacteria that cause disease

32 Antibiotic Resistance  Antibiotics will not work against bacteria with antibiotic resistance  People can die from antibiotic resistant infections

33 Antibiotic Resistance Bacteria have antibiotic resistance when they cannot be killed by an antibiotic. Remember, it is the bacteria that are resistant NOT YOU!

34 Fever  Helps the body fight infection  Occurs with most respiratory tract infections  Occurs with both viral and bacterial infections

35 Cold / Runny Nose  Colds are caused by viruses  Most colds are associated with a sore throat or a cough  Fluid from the nose becomes yellow/green after 2-3 days This does not mean it is a bacterial infection

36 Influenza Influenza is caused by a virus Prevention of influenza:  Influenza vaccine  Frequent handwashing  Stay away from school or work

37 Sore Throat  Most sore throats are due to viruses  Occasionally a sore throat may be due to Streptococcus bacteria The only way to diagnose Strep throat is with a throat swab.

38 Ear Ache  70-80% of ear infections get better without antibiotics  In children over 2 years of age - use acetaminophen for hours Handwashing is the best prevention for ear infections since most ear infections occur after a cold

39 Sinusitis  Viral sinusitis is up to 200 times more common than bacterial sinusitis  Yellow/green nasal discharge lasting more than 10 days may indicate bacterial sinusitis

40 Cough  Most coughs in adults and children are caused by viral infections  Cough is often prolonged with viral infections  Sometimes a cough may indicate pneumonia

41 YOU CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE!! Promote and support three key messages:  Wash your hands!  Not all bugs are created equal.  Use antibiotics wisely. A Community Program for Wise Use of Antibiotics

42 Using this presentation  Available:  To see slide annotations, go to “View” and select “Notes page”  If using this presentation please include this statement: Do Bugs Need Drugs? was developed by Capital Health, Towards Optimized Practice program of the Alberta Medical Association, Alberta Lung Association and University of Alberta.


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