2 Causes of DiseaseVirusesBacteriaFungiParasites invading the body
3 How Disease is Spread Direct contact and droplet spread Airborne transmissionFecal-Oral transmissionBloodborne transmission
4 Symptoms of Disease Fever Cough Rash Vomiting Changes in child’s typical behavior
5 Acute Infectious Diarrhea Caused by viruses and bacteria.Transmitted most often from fecal-oral route.Infectious diarrhea outbreaks are 2-3 times more common among children in early childhood group settings.Children who wear diapers are 17 times more likely to experience infectious diarrhea.Frequent hand washing is critical for prevention.
6 Respiratory Tract Illnesses Caused by viruses, bacteria, or fungi.Symptoms include fever, nasal congestion, runny nose, sore throat, ear pain, cough, difficulty breathing, rash.Frequent hand washing and teaching children how to cover their coughs are preventative measures.
7 Skin Infections and Contagious Rashes Caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi.Sometimes respiratory tract infections are associated with skin infections.Inclusion or exclusion policies for children with skin rashes are case-dependent.Frequent hand-washing helps minimize potential spread.
8 Important Immunizations Hepatitis AHepatitis BTetanusInfluenzaChicken pox and measlesPertussis or whooping cough
9 Controlling the Spread of Disease Hand washingConducting daily health checksCleaning and sanitizingSanitary diapering and toileting proceduresUsing standard precautionsTeaching children preventive health practices
10 Hand-Washing Before eating or feeding a child, whenever handling food Prior to giving medication to a childBefore playing in the water tableAfter using the toiletAfter diapering or helping a child use the toiletAfter assisting children to wipe or blow their noisesAfter contacting body fluids of any kind
11 Hand-Washing continued After providing first aid careAfter handling animalsAfter playing in the sandboxAfter handling uncooked food, especially raw meat or poultryAfter cleaning or sanitizingAfter handling garbage
12 Proper Hand-Washing Use a child sized sink and warm running water. Provide children with liquid soap.Show children to turn off faucet with paper towel.Use three steps for washing babies’ hands:Use first moist paper towel with a small amount of liquid soap to wipe child’s hands.Wet a second clean paper towel and use it to wash the child’s hands, wiping away any soap.Use a third clean paper towel to dry the child’s hands.
13 Preventative Messages to Teach How and when to wash my handsHow to blow my noseHow my body gets sickHow my body tells me I am sickHow to cover my coughHow to keep my sickness to myselfHow to take care of myself when I am sick
14 Vaccines for Preventable Diseases Rare diseases, due to immunizationsHighly contagiousSerious or lethalInclude Pertussis (whooping cough), haemophilus influenzae type b, chicken pox, measles, tetanus, influenza, hepatitis A, rotavirus
15 Common Communicable and Infectious Diseases Common coldsConjunctivitis (Pink eye)CroupGroup A strep infectionsEar infectionsFifth diseasePinwormsRespiratory syncytial virusTuberculosis
16 Common ColdsUpper respiratory infections caused by more than 200 viruses.Spread by sneezing, direct contact through nose blowing, or contact with germs on surfaces.Viruses can survive on contaminated objects for up to several days.Hand washing and sanitizing procedures are best preventative methods.
17 Infections and Acute Illnesses Involving the Skin Head liceScabiesRingwormCoxsackie virus (Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease)Bite woundsStaph infections
18 What if… A child in your class bites another child, breaking the skin? How would you respond?
19 Managing Lice Not associated with poor hygiene and poverty. Ensure “head checks” at school.If head lice are discovered, children do not need to be sent home immediately.Parents should be notified so treatment can be implemented.Treatment for head lice can be over-the-counter shampoos.Children can return to school after completing treatment.Teachers should remove all play clothing that touches heads.All families should be notified so they can monitor their children for evidence of lice.
20 Bloodborne Infections Hepatitis BHepatitis CHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
21 Common Diseases among Internationally Adopted Children Viral hepatitisIntestinal infectionsTuberculosisHIV infectionSkin infections
22 What if…A parent provided you with a bag of supplements to give their child at lunch?How would you respond?