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Presentation on theme: "THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM"— Presentation transcript:

Skin and its Derivatives

2 TYPES OF MEMBRANES Epithelial + Connective Tissue Connective Tissue
Serous Cutaneous Mucous Connective Tissue Synovial

3 Serous Membranes Line body cavities that have no openings to outside.
Secrete watery fluid. Simple squamous epith + loose CT

4 Mucous Membranes Line cavities that lead to outside.
Secrete mucus for protection. Epithelium + Loose CT

5 Serous, Mucous Membranes

6 Synovial Membrane Lines joint cavities at articulations.
Loose CT + elastic fibers + adipose tissue

7 Cutaneous Membrane Stratified squamous epithelium + CT + muscle + nervous tissue

8 Functions of Skin Protects from injuries
Acts as barrier and regulates what enters/leaves body. Regulates body temperature. Synthesizes, stores vitamins. Sensory functions

9 EPIDERMIS Stratum corneum Stratum granulosum Stratum spinosum
Stratum lucidum** Stratum granulosum Stratum spinosum Stratum basale (germinativum) **Thick skin only

10 Stratum Basale Lowest epidermal layer, near dermis
Good nutrient supply Reproduces by mitosis Cuboidal, columnar in shape Moves to upper epidermis in 27 days.

11 Stratum Basale

12 Stratum Spinosum Living cells Dividing 8-10 cells thick
Polygonal in appearance

13 Stratum Spinosum

14 Stratus Granulosum, Lucidum
Poor nutrient supply. Flatten layer of cells. 3-5 cells thick. No cell division. Keratin accumulates. Found only in very thick skin. Translucent. Highly keratinized. Dead cells

15 Stratum Corneum 25-30 cells thick.
Cells are filled with keratin and hardened. Sloughed off. Outer most layer of epidermis. Keratinocytes

16 Anatomy A215: EPIDERMIS LAYERS Memory Matrix
Superficial or Deep Layer? Characteristics Are cells keratinized in this layer? Seen in THIN skin too? Stratum Basale Stratum Spinosum Stratum Granulosum Stratum Lucidum Stratum Corneum

17 DERMIS                                                                  Irregular Dense Connective Tissue Collagenous fibers

18 Dermis Sweat gland Sebaceous gland Arrector pili muscle Blood vessels

19 Hair Follicle

20 Sebaceous Gland

21 Hair Follicles

22 Sweat Gland

23 Types of Sweat Glands (Sudoriferous Glands)
Merocrine glands: release fluid by exocytosis Eccrine Most common Secretion is mostly water with solutes Cools body down Apocrine Develops scent as bacteria metabolize secretion Stimulated when frightened, during pain, during emotional upset

24 Hypodermis (Subcutaneous)
                                                                       Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 2. Neck, Shoulders, Upper Arm, and Upper Thorax (Lungs) Key Figure 4a Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D., Adel K. Afifi, M.D., Jean J. Jew, M.D., and Paul C. Reimann, B.S. Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed                                                              Hypodermis (Subcutaneous) Recognized by adipose tissue.

25 Sensory Structures of Dermis
Deep touch/pressure: Pacinian corpuscles Light touch/pressure: Meisner’s corpuscles Warm temperature: Free nerve endings Cold temperature: Free nerve endings Pain: Free nerve endings

26 Melanocyte

27 Melanocyte Produces melanin for protection from UV radiation.
Responsible for skin color. Melanoma.

28 Melanoma                                                     

29 Basal Cell Carcinoma

30 Untreated…..

31 Actinic Keratosis Caused by sun damage. Can lead to
squamous cell carcinoma.



Balance between Need for protection against UV radiation which Causes skin cancer Destroys folate (vitamin B) Need for UV to produce vitamin D for calcium absorption


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