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Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Christine L. Case M I C R.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Christine L. Case M I C R."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Christine L. Case M I C R O B I O L O G Y a n i n t r o d u c t i o n ninth edition TORTORA  FUNKE  CASE Part A 21 Microbial Diseases of the Skin and Eyes

2 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Mucous Membranes  Line body cavities.  The epithelial cells are attached to an extracellular matrix.  Cells secrete mucus.  Some cells have cilia.

3 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Normal Microbiota of the Skin  Gram-positive, salt- tolerant bacteria  Staphylococci  Micrococci  Diphtheroids Figure 14.1a

4 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Microbial Diseases of the Skin  Exanthem: Skin rash arising from another focus of the infection.  Enanthem: Mucous membrane rash arising from another focus of the infection.

5 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Microbial Diseases of the Skin

6 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Microbial Diseases of the Skin Figure 21.2

7 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Staphylococcal Skin Infections  Impetigo of the newborn  Toxemia  Scalded skin syndrome  Toxic shock syndrome Figure 21.4

8 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Staphylococcal Biofilms Figure 21.3

9 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Streptococcal Skin Infections  Streptococcus pyogenes  Group A beta- hemolytic streptococci  M proteins Figure 21.5

10 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Streptococcal Skin Infections  Erysipelas  Impetigo Figures 21.6, 21.7

11 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infections  Streptokinases  Hyaluronidase  Exotoxin A, superantigen  Cellulitis  Necrotizing fasciitis Figure 21.8

12 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings FLESH EATING BACTERIA (NECROTIZING FASCIATUS

13 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Staphylococcal Skin Infections  Folliculitis: Infections of the hair follicles.  Sty: Folliculitis of an eyelash.  Furuncle: Abscess; pus surrounded by inflamed tissue.  Carbuncle: Inflammation of tissue under the skin.

14 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Staphylococcal Skin Infections  S. epidermidis  Gram-positive cocci and coagulase-negative  Staphylococcus aureus  Gram-positive cocci and coagulase-positive  Leukocidin  Exfoliative toxin

15 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Infections by Pseudomonads  Pseudomonas aeruginosa  Gram-negative, aerobic rod  Pyocyanin produces a blue-green pus  Pseudomonas dermatitis  Otitis externa  Post-burn infections

16 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Acne  Comedonal acne occurs when sebum channels are blocked with shed cells.  Inflammatory acne  Propionibacterium acnes  Gram-positive, anaerobic rod  Treatment  Preventing sebum formation (isotretinoin)  Antibiotics  Benzoyl peroxide to loosen clogged follicles  Visible (blue) light (kills P. acnes)

17 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Herpes Simplex 1 and Herpes Simplex 2  Human herpes virus 1 and HHV-2  Cold sores or fever blisters (vesicles on lips)  Herpes gladiatorum (vesicles on skin)  Herpes whitlow (vesicles on fingers)  Herpes encephalitis (HHV-2 has up to a 70% fatality rate)  HHV-1 can remain latent in trigeminal nerve ganglia.  HHV-2 can remain latent in sacral nerve ganglia.  Acyclovir may lessen symptoms.

18 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Herpesviruses  Varicella-zoster virus (human herpes virus 3)  Transmitted by the respiratory route  Causes pus-filled vesicles  Virus may remain latent in dorsal root ganglia Figure 21.10a

19 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Shingles  Reactivation of latent HHV-3 releases viruses that move along peripheral nerves to skin. Figure 21.10b

20 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fifth disease Figures 21.6, 21.7

21 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SMALLPOX – Hernando Cortez & Montezeuma Figure 21.9

22 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SMALLPOX Figure 21.9

23 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Poxviruses  Smallpox (variola)  Smallpox virus (orthopox virus)  Variola major has 20% mortality  Variola minor has <1% mortality  Monkeypox  Prevention by smallpox vaccination Figure 21.9

24 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Mother with Vaccinated Child

25 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings LESIONS

26 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Acne  Inflammatory acne (continued)  Nodular cystic acne  Treatment: isotretinoin

27 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings GENITAL WARTS Figure 21.9

28 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings GENITAL WARTS Figure 21.9

29 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Warts  Papillomaviruses  Treatment  Removal  Imiquimod (stimulates interferon production)  Interferon

30 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Measles (Rubeola)  Measles virus  Transmitted by respiratory route.  Macular rash and Koplik's spots.  Prevented by vaccination.  Encephalitis in 1 in 1,000 cases.  Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in 1 in 1,000,000 cases. Figure 21.14

31 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Measles (Rubeola) Figure 21.13

32 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Rubella (German Measles)  Rubella virus  Macular rash and fever  Congenital rubella syndrome causes severe fetal damage.  Prevented by vaccination Figure 21.15

33 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings  A 1905 list of skin rashes included (1)measles, (2)scarlet fever, (3)rubella, (4)Filatow-Dukes (mild scarlet fever), and  (5)Fifth Disease: Erythema infectiosum  Human parvovirus B19 produces milk flu-like symptoms and facial rash.  Roseola  Human herpesvirus 6 causes a high fever and rash, lasting for 1-2 days.

34 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cutaneous Mycoses  Dermatomycoses: Tineas or ringworm  Metabolize keratin  Trichophyton: Infects hair, skin, and nails  Epidermophyton: Infects skin and nails  Microsporum: Infects hair and skin  Treatment  Oral griseofulvin  Topical miconazole

35 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cutaneous Mycoses Figure 21.16

36 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Subcutaneous Mycoses  Sporotrichosis  Sporothrix schenckii enters puncture wound  Treated with KI

37 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Candidiasis  Candida albicans (yeast)  Candidiasis may result from suppression of competing bacteria by antibiotics.  Occurs in skin; mucous membranes of genitourinary tract and mouth.  Thrush is an infection of mucous membranes of mouth.  Topical treatment with miconazole or nystatin.

38 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Candidiasis Figure 21.17

39 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Scabies  Sarcoptes scabiei burrows in the skin to lay eggs  Treatment with topical insecticides Figure 21.18

40 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Pediculosis  Pediculus humanus capitis (head louse)  P. h. corporis (body louse)  Feed on blood.  Lay eggs (nits) on hair.  Treatment with topical insecticides. Figure 21.19

41 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Macular Rashes  A 9-year-old girl with a history of cough, conjunctivitis, and fever (38  C) has a mcular rash that starts on her face and neck and is spreading to the rest of her body. Can you identify the cause of her symptoms  Measles  Rubella  Fifth disease  Roseola  Candidiasis

42 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Bacterial Diseases of the Eye  Conjunctivitis (pinkeye)  Haemophilus influenzae  Various microbes  Associated with unsanitary contact lenses  Neonatal gonorrheal ophthalmia  Neisseria gonorrhoeae  Transmitted to a newborn's eyes during passage through the birth canal.  Prevented by treatment of a newborn's eyes with antibiotics

43 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Bacterial Diseases of the Eye  Chlamydia trachomatis  Inclusion conjunctivitis  Transmitted to a newborn's eyes during passage through the birth canal  Spread through swimming pool water  Treated with tetracycline  Trachoma  Leading cause of blindness worldwide  Infection causes permanent scarring; scars abrade the cornea leading to blindness

44 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings TRACHOMA LEAFLET

45 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings TRACHOMA RANGE

46 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 21.20a Trachoma

47 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings TRACHOMA AND THE CARTER CENTER

48 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Protozoan Disease of the Eye  Acanthamoeba keratitis  Transmitted from water  Associated with unsanitary contact lenses

49 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Viral Diseases of the Eye  Conjunctivitis  Adenoviruses  Herpetic keratitis  Herpes simplex virus 1 (HHV-1).  Infects cornea and may cause blindness  Treated with trifluridine


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