Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior ~80% of Students ~15% ~5% Schoolwide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports Focused on preventing behavior problems at the school-wide level Comprehensive, coordinated, and systemic
CHARACTERISTICS OF TIER II INTERVENTIONS Continuously available Rapid access to intervention (less than one week) Low effort by teachers Consistent with schoolwide expectations Function-based or can be modified based on function Continuous monitoring (data-used for decision making)
CHECK-IN CHECK-OUT (CICO) Designed for Students with moderate problem behaviors not responding to Tier I of SWPBIS Basic CICO is most appropriate when problem behaviors are maintained by adult attention Students “check-in” with an adult at the start of each day Students get feedback from teachers throughout the day using a Daily Progress Report (DPR) Students “check-out” with an adult at the conclusion of each school day
8 STEPS OF CICO IMPLEMENTATION 1.BEP Coordinator 2.Teaming Structure 3.Identifying Students for BEP 4.Develop the Daily Progress Report (DPR) 5.Develop a Reinforcement System 6.BEP Data for Decision Making 7.BEP Fading Strategies 8.Staff, Student, and Parent Training
KENNEDY CARD Name _____________________________________________________ Material s To Class Worked and Let Others Work Follow Directions the First Time TeacherParent 2 1 No 2 1 No 2 1 No Assignments: Wow, 2 1 No 2 1 No 2 1 No Assignments: Wow, 2 1 No 2 1 No 2 1 No Assignments: Wow, 2 1 No 2 1 No 2 1 No Assignments: Wow, 2 1 No 2 1 No 2 1 No Assignments: Wow, 2 1 No 2 1 No 2 1 No Assignments: Wow, = _____ Goal = 36 Leanne S. Hawken, PhD - 2012 6
WHY DOES THE BEP WORK? Improved structure Prompts are provided throughout the day for correct behavior. System for linking student with at least one positive adult. Student is “set up for success” First contact each morning is positive. “Blow-out” days are pre-empted. First contact each class period (or activity period) is positive. Increase in contingent feedback Feedback occurs more often. Feedback is tied to student behavior. Inappropriate behavior is less likely to be ignored or rewarded.
Leanne S. Hawken, PhD - 2012 9 Reasons the BEP may not result in improved behavior Is the behavior due to a lack of social skills? CICO+SS Explicitly teach social skills efficiently Is the behavior related to lack of academic skills? BEP + Academic Support Increase academic support Is the behavior maintained by peer attention Peer Motivated BEP Allow student to earn reinforcers to share with peers
TYPICAL APPROACH TO SOCIAL SKILLS TRAINING (SST) Lesson 1 – Greeting Lesson 2 – Asking questions Lesson 3 – Asking for help Lesson 4 – Making friends
THE EVIDENCE SST has been effective in certain studies, but a lot of the time it doesn‘t work Effect Sizes range from.20-.87 Cognitive-behavioral approaches are weaker
WHY HASN’T SOCIAL SKILLS TRAINING BEEN MORE EFFECTIVE? 1.Disregard for type of deficit Acquisition Performance Fluency Competing Behaviors 2.Poor treatment integrity 3.Not enough intensity or duration 4.Generalization and maintenance No planning for generalization Instruction in contrived settings Gresham, Sugai & Horner, 2001
CICO+SS Step 1: CICO Step 2: Social Skills Assessment Social Skills Rating System (SSRS) Can be completed by parents, teachers, and students General areas assessed: Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, and Self-Control Step 3: Efficient Social Skills Training Step 4: Continually Monitor Progress
STEP 1 - CICO 1.Student checks-in in the morning with an adult Has a positive interaction Sets goal for the day 2.Student carries a behavior card throughout the day and receives feedback from teachers at natural breaks in the day (e.g., recess or passing periods) 3.Student checks out at the end of the day with an adult Has a positive interaction Checks on goal for the day 4.Student is reinforced for meeting goal or encouraged to improve tomorrow 5. Student take the card home to parent/guardian
STEP 2 - ASSESSMENT Identify two things 1.They type of deficit the student has Acquisition (Can’t do) Performance (Won’t do) Fluency (Too difficult) 2.The specific skills that the student lacks
SSRS Consider a student you have worked with that may benefit from Social Skills Training. What skills would you target?
SELF-CONTROL Controls temper in conflict situations with peers. Responds appropriately to peer pressure. Responds appropriately to teasing by peers. Controls temper in conflict situations with adults. Receives criticism well. Responds appropriately when pushed or hit by other children Consider a skill you think would be critical for a student you work with
ASSERTIVENESS Introduces herself or himself to new people without being told. Appropriately questions rules that may be unfair. Invites others to join activities. Initiates conversations with peers. Gives compliments to peers Volunteers to help peers with classroom tasks. Consider a skill you think would be critical for a student you work with
COOPERATION Uses free time in an acceptable way Finishes class assignments within time limits Uses time appropriately while waiting for help. Follows your directions. Ignores peer distractions when doing class work. Consider a skill you think would be critical for a student you work with
STEP 3 – TEACH SOCIAL SKILLS 1.Task analyze the skill 2.Develop a lesson plan 3.Identify the time, place, and relevant people 4.Teach the skills
EXAMPLE Skill = Introducing yourself 1.Get the person’s attention 2.Say, “My name is ________” 3.Ask, “What is your name?” 4.Say, “Nice to meet you.”
Hoffmeister & Lubke, 1999 Short lessons (15 min max) taught by a student teacher Half of the lesson was delivered in a classroom environment: 1.Introduce the skill 2.Initial guided practice After basic skill mastery was acquired, the remainder of lessons were moved to applicable settings 1.Guided practice in the cafeteria, recess playground, or classroom (depending on skill) 2.Practice with specific people including specific students or adults 3.Independent practice including an assignment for the rest of the day SOCIAL SKILLS INSTRUCTION
NEW MATERIAL Critical practices when teaching new material: Present clear goals Break the skill down into all the steps Explicitly model each step What steps would be necessary to teach the skill your student needs to learn? How would you teach the skill explicitly.
GUIDED PRACTICE Guided practice slowly removes scaffolds so that students get closer and closer to independent practice Practice should occur in the environments where the skill is used and with people with whom the skill is needed Practice should involve numerous opportunities to respond with feedback Keep students in guided practice until students are responding 80-90% correct What would guided practice look like for your skill?
INDEPENDENT PRACTICE Student must demonstrate they can use the skill on their own at a certain criteria Over a certain period of time In typical environments with typical people.
EXAMPLE LESSON OBJECTIVES Self-Control When pushed or hit by other children, student will use stop/walk/talk strategy during 3 independent practice opportunities with 100% accuracy on five separate occasions. Assertiveness Given an opportunity to tell you when he thinks you have treated him unfairly, student will communicate his feelings politely, and allow adults to respond without getting upset with 100% accuracy on five separate occasions. Cooperation Given three opportunities to use time appropriately while waiting for help, student will sit correctly in his chair, raise his hand, and wait to be called on while staying quiet with 100% accuracy on five separate occasions
Start teaching in a classroom (some place without distractions) for the learning set and new material Move to the relevant context for the guided and independent practice.
STEP 4 – MONITOR PROGRESS Continue to monitor the CICO form to assess what effect the social skills instruction has on behavior Make any adjustments to the instruction that are needed Teach new skills Teach in new locations Teach with different people
EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS Participants and Settings 5 students at a school were nominated by the principal to need social skills support Two 3rd grade girls Lucinda and Sarah Two 5 th grade girls Emily and Olivia One 1 st grade boy Tom
DATA COLLECTION 1. Assessment with the SSRS Skills in Self-Control and Assertiveness indicated for all 5 participating students 2. Direct observation of students during lunch recess Percentage of 10-sec intervals during 5-min observations of lunch recess Positive social engagement was defined as appropriate play or positive communication with peers. Negative social engagement was defined as inappropriate play or negative communication with peers. 3. Implementation Fidelity Checklist completed by interventionist and researcher assessed implementation of CICO and Social Skills Training (92% component completion) 4. Social Validity General education teachers, interventionist, and playground supervisors completed social validity questionnaire at conclusion of study
Sarah Lucinda BLCICOCICO+SS Percentage of 10 Second Intervals with Engagement Maintenance Emily Olivia Tom Peer Composite Positive Social Engagement Negative Social Engagement 30.69% increase in positive social engagement 9.9% decrease in negative social engagement
SOCIAL VALIDITY The four general education teachers involved and the student teacher (interventionist) completed the social validity questionnaire on a six-point scale, with higher scores indicating a higher satisfaction with the intervention components. “CICO+SS improved student behavior”: 5.2 (range, 4 to 6) “CICO+SS was worth the time and effort”: 5.6 (range 5 to 6) “I would recommend CICO+SS to others”: 5.6 (range 5 to 6) “CICO+SS was easy to implement”: 5.0 (range, 4 to 6).
CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS 1.) All students experienced improved social skill gains after the intervention 2) CICO+SS was cost effective, practical and not overly time intensive 3) Teachers noted a positive change in student behavior when social skills training started 4) Social skill benefit continued after intervention components were removed