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Justin Boyd & Jessica Turtura University of Oregon School Psychology Program March 8, 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "Justin Boyd & Jessica Turtura University of Oregon School Psychology Program March 8, 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 Justin Boyd & Jessica Turtura University of Oregon School Psychology Program March 8, 2010

2 Primary Prevention Tier 1 SWPBS Second Steps Strong Kids Secondary Interventions CICO First Steps to Success Skills groups Secondary interventions w/function-based modifications Tertiary interventions

3 Secondary interventions should require low effort on the part of teachers and staff Be consistent with school-wide expectations Should be able to be implemented quickly and efficiently Provide increased opportunities for feedback about student behavior and provide multiple opportunities to practice skills Data-based decision-making is key Selecting students for the intervention Progress monitoring An example of an evidence-based secondary intervention is Check-In- Check-Out

4 Behavioral Functions

5 Behavioral function is not always a consideration when placing students into tier two interventions Evidence suggests that interventions may be more effective when they address the specific function of the students problem behavior Incorporating function-based components at tier 2 is feasible

6 Improved structure Prompts are provided throughout the day for correct behavior. System for linking student with at least one positive adult. Student chooses to participate. Student is set up for success First contact each morning is positive. Blow-out days are pre-empted. First contact each class period (or activity period) is positive. Increase in contingent feedback Feedback occurs more often. Feedback is tied to student behavior. Inappropriate behavior is less likely to be ignored or rewarded.

7 Evidence Supporting its Effectiveness Increase academic engagement, reduce problem behavior (e.g., Fairbanks et al., 2005; Filter et al., 2007; Hawken & Horner, 2003) Highly acceptable to teachers, parents, students (e.g., Hawken et al., 2007) Can be modified for different behavioral functions (March & Horner, 2002; Fairbanks et al., 2005) but is often done so on an individual basis

8 Most effective for attention-maintained problem behavior Less effective for escape-maintained problem behavior Modifications required May be less effective in middle schools Aversive properties resulting from academic skill deficits Importance of organizational and study skills

9 Mild problem behaviors Students who are sensitive to adult attention Students whose problem behaviors are maintained primarily by adult attention

10 Whos left? work avoiders off-task escape-maintained students who lack academic or organizational skills Student for whom adult attention is not highly reinforcing

11 Considerations for Practice Systematic modifications versus individualized interventions Mechanisms to address function directly Appropriateness & fit Elementary Secondary

12 Tier two interventions for students whose problem behaviors are, in part, maintained by escape or avoidance Special considerations for elementary and upper levels Building off an existing secondary intervention

13 Justin Boyd, M.S.

14 An Evidence Based Practice e.g., Bird, Dores, Moniz, & Robinson, 1989; Brown et al., 2000; Carr & Durand, 1985; Durand & Carr, 1987, 1991; Hagopian, Fisher, Sullivan, Acquisto, & LeBlanc, 1998; Mildon, Moore, & Dixon, 2004; Wacker et al., 1990 Logic & Examples Children with communication deficits Typically developing children (e.g., Stahr et al., 2006; Filter & Horner, 2009) Typically considered as part of a Tier 3 intervention Escape-maintained problem behavior

15 CICO teaches students to recruit adult attention BrB with CICO teaches students to recruit brief- breaks as a functionally equivalent alternative to problem behavior. Breaks are Better (BrB) Implemented in the same way as CICO Includes the use of Replacement Behavior Directly addresses escape /avoidance functions

16 Explicitly teach an alternative/replacement behavior (i.e., break requests) Promote self-management by teaching students to keep track of their breaks Establish & Teach teachers (and students) how this will look in the classroom Make it feasible and sustainable for classroom teachers to implement

17 Elementary school Utilizing SWPBS Have implemented SWPBS with fidelity for at least 2- years CICO for at least one year At least 90% of CICO features on the CICO self- assessment (fidelity)

18 Exhibiting problem behaviors in academic settings Nominated by instructional staff as needing additional behavior support for mild disruptive behaviors in the classroom Brief FBA or informal teacher interview suggests their problem behaviors are maintained primarily by escape (e.g., work avoidance). FACTS Guess & Check

19 BRB point card (with team defined goals) Timer (e.g., digital, hour-glass) Team-generated list of acceptable break options


21 Breaks are Better Card


23 Training of Staff and Teachers When After obtaining buy-in Prior to attempting to implement the program Day-to-Day Implementation of BrB Student Training/Orientation (once identified) Teacher orientation/support Data review using CICO-SWIS

24 Orientation time (additional 12 minutes) Must explicitly teach the break request & provide opportunities for the student to practice with feedback. Teaching Script

25 Must teach teachers how to allow or disallow student breaks thumbs up and thumbs down Preferably this is done school-wide, rather than individually Teacher Reminders Page

26 Student problem behavior Individually defined for each student Academic engagement Decreases in off-task behaviors and increases in on-task behavior, work completion, etc. Frequency of Breaks Appropriate requests to be off-task or to engage in behaviors other than what the classroom expectation is at the time. Brief (i.e., 2-minutes) Limited number of opportunities to request these breaks

27 Jessica Turtura, M.S.

28 Link between academic and behavioral concerns Increasingly important role of organizational and study skills

29 Modified version of CICO Designed to… Decrease problem behaviors that are maintained by escape and/or avoidance of academic tasks Increase desired behaviors including work completion and class participation Provide scaffolding to help students develop effective organizational habits and study skills Improve communication between home and school around homework completion

30 Students who engage in problem behaviors in order to escape or avoid academic tasks Students that are often off-task during class Students that have difficulty keeping track of assignments and turning in work Students that lack organizational and study skills

31 Students with severe academic skills deficits Will likely need specific instruction in academic areas of concern May benefit from the ABC program plus additional support Students that engage in problem behaviors but for whom work completion and/or organization is not a concern

32 Components Students receive daily point card and review goals Coordinator checks: Are students prepared for the day? Have students completed all homework due today? Opportunity to complete unfinished homework Points earned for being prepared and/or completing homework Key modifications from CICO Explicit focus around academic-related behaviors Points are linked to being prepared for the school day and having homework assignments due that day

33 Components Daily point card/homework tracker Goals defined in terms of academic behavior Points for recording assignments on homework tracker Key modifications from CICO Feedback is specifically related to academic behaviors hand raising, work completion, class participation, etc. Teacher checks to make sure students have accurately recorded any homework assignments



36 Components Rewards and/or feedback Review homework tracker Key modifications from CICO Rewards linked to the function of behavior examples may include break coupons, homework passes, etc. Explicit focus on reviewing homework and ensuring that students are prepared to complete that evenings assignments

37 Components Home-school communication Parent meeting Key modifications from CICO Communication between home and school about homework completion Parents gain information about how to best help their children with homework Parents are better able to track assignments that their children need to complete


39 Student buy-in Communication between staff Fidelity of implementation Parent involvement

40 For more information feel free to contact us Justin Boyd Jessica Turtura

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