Presentation on theme: "PLANT DIVERSITY Lecture 1 Plant Systematics and Linnean taxonomy Lecturer: Asst. Prof. Dr. İsmail EKER."— Presentation transcript:
PLANT DIVERSITY Lecture 1 Plant Systematics and Linnean taxonomy Lecturer: Asst. Prof. Dr. İsmail EKER
Common misconception Taxonomy is very difficult and specialized FACT: Taxonomy is part of the cognitive process.
Everyone is a taxonomist!
What is Classification? Classification is the arrangement of organisms into orderly groups based on their similaritiesClassification is the arrangement of organisms into orderly groups based on their similarities Classification is also known as taxonomyClassification is also known as taxonomy Taxonomists are scientists that identify & name organismsTaxonomists are scientists that identify & name organisms
NOT UNIVERSAL!! Why we need Latin names? Common names ??
Problems: 1. They are too many!!! Nymphaea alba L. has: 15 in English 44 in French 105 in German 81 in Dutch 221 in Russian …over 5000 common names worldwide!
Latin Names are Understood by all Taxonomists
2. Many plant species do not have a common name e.g. ~2000 spp. of Carex L. are called “sedge”
3. Different plants may have the same common name Often, two or more unrelated species are known by the same common name. e.g. Bachelor‘s button, may thus be Tanacetum vulgare L., Knautia arvensis Coult. or Centaurea cyanus L. Tanacetum vulgare L.Knautia arvensis Coult.Centaurea cyanus L.
4. many common names may exist for the same species in the same language in the same or different localities. e.g. Cornflower, bluebottle, bachelor‘s button and ragged robin all refer to the same species Centaurea cyanus L. Centaurea cyanus L.
Why Latin? The selection has several advantages over modern languages: i) Latin is a dead language and as such meanings and interpretation are not subject to changes unlike, English and other languages ii) Latin is specific and exact in meaning iii) grammatical sense of the word is commonly obvious iv) Latin language employs the Roman alphabet, which fits well in the text of most languages.
Early Taxonomists 2350 years ago, Aristotle ( BC) was the “first taxonomist”2350 years ago, Aristotle ( BC) was the “first taxonomist” Aristotle divided organisms into plants & animalsAristotle divided organisms into plants & animals Aristotle was the first to attempt to classify all the kinds of animals in his “Historia Animalium” in Latin.Aristotle was the first to attempt to classify all the kinds of animals in his “Historia Animalium” in Latin.
Aristotle’s student Theophrastus ( BC) known as the "father of botany“ Aristotle’s student Theophrastus ( BC) known as the "father of botany“ His “De Historia Plantarum” is the first written literature about plants.His “De Historia Plantarum” is the first written literature about plants. He first described the anatomy of plants and classified them into trees, shrubs, herbaceous perennials, and herbs.He first described the anatomy of plants and classified them into trees, shrubs, herbaceous perennials, and herbs. Early Taxonomists
John Ray ( ), a botanist, was the first to use “Polynomial system” naming of plant in LatinJohn Ray ( ), a botanist, was the first to use “Polynomial system” naming of plant in Latin His names were very long descriptions telling everything about the plantHis names were very long descriptions telling everything about the plant
Polynomial system [before 1800] Polynomial Nomenclature Ranunculus calycibus, retroflexus, pedulculis falcatis, caule erecto, folis comopositis “The buttercup with bent- back sepals, curved flower stalks, erect stems and compound leaves”
Swedish scientist – Carl von Linne (doctor and botanist) Called the “Father of Systematic Botany” Established modern system of nomenclature His binomial system of nomenclature, in which the genus and species names are used. Carolus Linnaeus 1707 – 1778
Binomial system Linnaeus, Species Plantarum (1753) Dianthus caryophyllus L. Binomial = 2 names italicized or underlined Abbreviation of author who discovered and described the species The genus comes first and is always capitalized and italicized The specific epithet comes after the genus and is always lower case and italicized Genus (pl. genera) Always capitalized Abbreviated on 2 nd use Specific epithet Not capitalized Often a descriptive adjective neither italicized nor underlined
Allium arsuzense Eker & Koyuncu Allium roseum L. subsp. gulekense Koyuncu & Eker genus specific epithet Author(s) species (taxon) name subspecies Photographed by Eker
At a meeting in Paris in 1867, European & American botanists agreed to use Linnaeus’ binomial classification as the starting point for all scientific names of plants. The rules were drawn up at that meeting and these rules today have been revised at International Botanical Cogress by ICBN commitee, lastly held at Melbourn/Australia in 2011.
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) 1. Botanical nomenclature is independent of zoological nomenclature. Guidelines set by the ICBN
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) 2. Each taxon can have only one correct name.
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) 3. Each name must be linked to a type specimen.
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) 4. Nomenclature of taxonomic groups is based on priority of publication Polygonum heterophyllum Lindman, Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 6: 690, Polygonum aviculare L., Species Plantarum 2: journal namedatevol.page
Taxonomic ranks (taxa) (e.g. house, street, city, county, state, country, continent, planet)
The dendrogram view of Taxonomic hierarchy Taxonomic ranks (taxa)
What is a species? Species: a set of individuals that are closely related by descent from a common ancestor and ordinarily can reproduce with each other, but not with members of any other species. Biological species: a group of interbreeding populations. Offspring are fertile. “sp.” or “spp.” stands for species and never underlined or italicized singular plural e.g. Allium L. sp. has a meaning of 1 Allium species Allium L. spp. have a meaning of more than 1 Allium species
Species Some members of same species look very different…
All these are same species! Broccoli, kale, cabbage, cauliflower: members same species! Brassica oleracea L. Kale: kara lahana: Brassica oleracea ‘Acephala Group’ Broccoli: brokoli: Brassica oleracea ‘Italica Group’ Cabbage: lahana: Brassica oleracea ‘Capitata Group’ Cauliflower: karnıbahar: Brassica oleracea ‘Botrytis Group’ Same species, are capable of interbreeding, but Morphologically may look very different. Brussels sprouts: Brüksel lahanası: Brassica oleracea ‘Gemmifera Group’
Plant species can be divided more specifically into: subspecies variety hybrid cultivar
SUBSPECIFIC CATEGORIES Allium roseum L. subsp. gulekense Koyuncu & EkerAllium roseum L. subsp. roseum Subspecies Photographed by Eker subspecies (abbreviated "subsp." or "ssp."; plural: "subspecies") A subspecies describes a group of related organisms that can interbreed and are geographically distinct from others in their species.
The Variety Cercis canadensis L. Cercis canadensis L. var. alba (Rehder) Bean A group of plants subordinate to the species; differing from the species in one or more inheritable characteristics. Written in lower case and italicized or underlined. “var.” from Latin varietas, “variety”
Hybrids two closely related but distinct species will be interbreed to form a hybrid are often sterile and produce no seed or fruit written in lowercase and italicized or underlined an “x” is placed between the genus and hybrid epithet. the “x” means the plant is a hybrid. Platanus occidentalis L. crossed with Platanus orientalis L. Platanus x acerifolia (Aiton) Willd.
The Cultivar (“Cultivated variety” or horticultural variety) In ornamental horticulture cultivar characteristics are not inheritable Cultivar names are always capitalized and never underlined/italicized Written in single quotations or with abbreviation of cultivar (cv.) Example: Cercis canadensis ‘Forest Pansy’ OR Cercis canadensis cv. Forest Pansy A single species may have many cultivars Juniperus horizontalis ‘Blue Chip’ Juniperus horizontalis ‘Plumosa’ Juniperus horizontalis ‘Hughes’ etc. Plants within a species that have been selected especially for a particular characteristic and are propagated, usually asexually to continue this trait(growth habit, flower, fruitless).
Gleditsia triacanthos L. var. inermis ( L. ) Castigl. Gleditsia triacanthos var. inermis ‘Skyline’ It is possible to have a cultivar of a variety Gleditsia triacanthos inermis ‘Skyline’ Cornus florida rubra ‘Cherokee Chief’