4What is Classification? Classification is the arrangement of organisms into orderly groups based on their similaritiesClassification is also known as taxonomyTaxonomists are scientists that identify & name organisms
5Why we need Latin names?NOT UNIVERSAL!!Common names ??
6Problems: 1. They are too many!!! Nymphaea alba L. has: 15 in English 44 in French105 in German81 in Dutch221 in Russian…over 5000 common names worldwide!
82. Many plant species do not have a common name e.g. ~2000 spp. of Carex L. are called “sedge”
93. Different plants may have the same common name Often, two or more unrelated species are known by the same common name.e.g. Bachelor‘s button, may thus be Tanacetum vulgare L., Knautia arvensis Coult. or Centaurea cyanus L.Tanacetum vulgare L.Knautia arvensis Coult.Centaurea cyanus L.
104. many common names may exist for the same species in the same language in the same or different localities.e.g. Cornflower, bluebottle, bachelor‘s button and ragged robin all refer to the same species Centaurea cyanus L.Centaurea cyanus L.
11Why Latin? The selection has several advantages over modern languages: i) Latin is a dead language and as such meanings and interpretation are not subject to changes unlike, English and other languagesii) Latin is specific and exact in meaningiii) grammatical sense of the word is commonly obviousiv) Latin language employs the Roman alphabet, which fits well in the text of most languages.
12Early Taxonomists2350 years ago, Aristotle ( BC) was the “first taxonomist”Aristotle divided organisms into plants & animalsAristotle was the first to attempt to classify all the kinds of animals in his “Historia Animalium” in Latin.
13Early TaxonomistsAristotle’s student Theophrastus ( BC) known as the "father of botany“His “De Historia Plantarum” is the first written literature about plants.He first described the anatomy of plants and classified them into trees, shrubs, herbaceous perennials, and herbs.
15Early TaxonomistsJohn Ray ( ), a botanist, was the first to use “Polynomial system” naming of plant in LatinHis names were very long descriptions telling everything about the plant
16Polynomial system [before 1800] Polynomial NomenclatureRanunculus calycibus, retroflexus, pedulculis falcatis, caule erecto, folis comopositis“The buttercup with bent-back sepals, curved flower stalks, erect stems and compound leaves”
17Carolus Linnaeus 1707 – 1778Swedish scientist – Carl von Linne (doctor and botanist)Called the “Father of Systematic Botany”Established modern system of nomenclatureHis binomial system of nomenclature, in which the genus and species names are used.
18Binomial system Linnaeus, Species Plantarum (1753) Dianthus caryophyllus L.Abbreviation of author who discovered and described the speciesGenus (pl. genera)Always capitalizedAbbreviated on 2nd useSpecific epithetNot capitalizedOften a descriptive adjectiveneither italicized nor underlineditalicized or underlinedBinomial = 2 namesThe genus comes first and is always capitalized and italicizedThe specific epithet comes after the genus and is always lower case and italicized
19Allium arsuzense Eker & Koyuncu Photographed by EkerAllium arsuzense Eker & Koyuncugenusspecific epithetAuthor(s)species (taxon) namePhotographed by EkerAllium roseum L. subsp. gulekense Koyuncu & Ekersubspecies
20At a meeting in Paris in 1867, European & American botanists agreed to use Linnaeus’ binomial classification as the starting point for all scientific names of plants. The rules were drawn up at that meeting and these rules today have been revised at International Botanical Cogress by ICBN commitee, lastly held at Melbourn/Australia in 2011.
21International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) Guidelines set by the ICBN1. Botanical nomenclature is independent of zoological nomenclature.
22International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) 2. Each taxon can have only one correct name.
23International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) 3. Each name must be linked to a type specimen.
24International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) 4. Nomenclature of taxonomic groups is based on priority of publicationPolygonum aviculare L. , Species Plantarum 2:journal namevol.pagedatePolygonum heterophyllum Lindman, Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 6: 690, 1912.
25Taxonomic ranks (taxa) (e.g. house, street, city, county, state, country, continent, planet)
26Taxonomic ranks (taxa) The dendrogram view of Taxonomic hierarchy
27What is a species?Species: a set of individuals that are closely related by descent from a common ancestor and ordinarily can reproduce with each other, but not with members of any other species.Biological species: a group of interbreeding populations. Offspring are fertile.“sp.” or “spp.” stands for species and never underlined or italicizedsingularplurale.g. Allium L. sp. has a meaning of 1 Allium speciesAllium L. spp. have a meaning of more than 1 Allium species
28SpeciesSome members of same species look very different…
29All these are same species! Same species, are capable of interbreeding, but Morphologically may look very different.Broccoli, kale, cabbage, cauliflower: members same species! Brassica oleracea L.Broccoli: brokoli: Brassica oleracea ‘Italica Group’Brussels sprouts: Brüksel lahanası: Brassica oleracea ‘Gemmifera Group’Cabbage: lahana: Brassica oleracea ‘Capitata Group’Cauliflower: karnıbahar: Brassica oleracea ‘Botrytis Group’Kale: kara lahana: Brassica oleracea ‘Acephala Group’
30Plant species can be divided more specifically into: subspeciesvarietyhybridcultivar
31SUBSPECIFIC CATEGORIES Subspecies A subspecies describes a group of related organisms that can interbreed and are geographically distinct from others in their species.subspecies (abbreviated "subsp." or "ssp."; plural: "subspecies")Photographed by EkerAllium roseum L. subsp. roseumAllium roseum L. subsp. gulekense Koyuncu & Eker
32Written in lower case and italicized or underlined. The VarietyA group of plants subordinate to the species; differing from the species in one or more inheritable characteristics.Written in lower case and italicized or underlined.“var.” from Latin varietas, “variety”Cercis canadensis L. var. alba (Rehder) BeanCercis canadensis L.
33Platanus occidentalis L. crossed with Platanus orientalis L. Hybridstwo closely related but distinct species will be interbreed to form a hybridare often sterile and produce no seed or fruitwritten in lowercase and italicized or underlinedan “x” is placed between the genus and hybrid epithet. the “x” means the plant is a hybrid.Platanus occidentalis L. crossed with Platanus orientalis L.Platanus x acerifolia (Aiton) Willd.
34The Cultivar (“Cultivated variety” or horticultural variety) In ornamental horticulture cultivar characteristics are not inheritableCultivar names are always capitalized and never underlined/italicizedWritten in single quotations or with abbreviation of cultivar (cv.)Example: Cercis canadensis ‘Forest Pansy’ORCercis canadensis cv. Forest PansyA single species may have many cultivarsJuniperus horizontalis ‘Blue Chip’Juniperus horizontalis ‘Plumosa’Juniperus horizontalis ‘Hughes’ etc.Plants within a species that have been selected especially for a particular characteristic and are propagated, usually asexually to continue this trait(growth habit, flower, fruitless).
36It is possible to have a cultivar of a variety Gleditsia triacanthos inermis ‘Skyline’ Cornus florida rubra ‘Cherokee Chief’Gleditsia triacanthos L. var. inermis ( L. ) Castigl.Gleditsia triacanthos var. inermis ‘Skyline’