Presentation on theme: "Smart Grids for Sustainable Mega Cities and a Delhi Innovation Anil Razdan Former Secretary Power Government of India Erice : Italy August 2012."— Presentation transcript:
Smart Grids for Sustainable Mega Cities and a Delhi Innovation Anil Razdan Former Secretary Power Government of India Erice : Italy August 2012
A Rapidly Urbanizing World For the first time in history, the proportion of world population living in urban areas reached 50% in 2008 Will reach 60% in 2030 if present trend continues Developed countries had attained 50% urbanization in 1950’s Developing countries will attain that level in a decade. The least developed have most of their population in rural areas and will face the fastest urbanisation in the near future Between 2007 and 2050 the world population growth will be 2.5 billion and the cities will absorb 3.1 billion Urbanisation in developing countries not linked to economic growth, will happen even otherwise
The Challenges of Urbanisation Populations in developing countries move to cities for better wages, amenities, health care and education People prefer to be poor in city slums rather than in a remote rural area for better economic opportunities Besides housing, this presents vast challenges of meeting energy demands of electricity, transportation and cooking fuels Need to assure ENERGY Availability, Accessibility and Acceptability (3As) In the context of developing countries 4Es are relevant - Energy, Environment, Efficiency and Equity Challenge becomes greater on account of multilevel governance and financial jurisdiction-local, state and federal Poverty and nascent democracy restrain harsh enforcement measures
Mega cities In 1975 there were 179 cities with more than 1 million inhabitants. In 2007 they were 430 MEGA CITIES defined by UN as an urban conglomeration of more than 10 million, constitute only 4% of urban population Mega cities are cultural, political and economic centres Most visual part of the urbanising world depicting the advantages, disadvantages and disparities of life in a city The biggest 30 cities produced 16% of the global GDP while accounting for only 4% of the population Between 1975 and 2010 the number of people living in mega cities rose from 53.2 million to 318 million In 1950 only two mega cities : Tokyo and New York. By 2025, there will be 27, and Asia will have 15 of them
Urban Energy Surge World Energy Outlook 2008 : Cities consumed two thirds of global energy consumption in 2006, will consume three fourths by 2030 Cities in transition move from traditional bio mass fuels to LPG and electricity as incomes rise Mode of transport often determined by density and spread. Metro services reduce oil consumption and pollution, but demand more and reliable electricity Vertical rise of cities raises electricity demand for climate control (AC), water supply and lifts However, mega cities often provide a better opportunity for innovation through better finances, political clout, media attention and visibility for federal support
CHARACTERISTICS and BURDENS of MEGA CITIES Given their economic importance, each mega city must remain highly competitive in terms of infrastructure in a globalized economy Serious energy constraints in developing countries made more acute in high demand mega cities Climate change and local pollution concerns make capacity addition from conventional fuels more difficult Business, transportation, high rise buildings, sensitive IT based information and communication system, traffic signals and large hospitals place a huge demand for electricity The presence of ultra rich with energy intensive life styles adds to the demand
The integration of neighboring villages in extended limits of mega cities leads to pockets of lower quality electricity service Energy poor settlements and erstwhile rural areas without an urban culture create serious problems of power theft and governance Metro transportation has increased burden of secure and steady power Working population leaving and returning home at the same time in a service oriented economy leads to peak demand Space constraint for developing renewable energy infrastructure to meet renewable purchase obligations CHARACTERISTICS and BURDENS of MEGA CITIES Contd.
Energy Demand Management becomes a critical issue to avoid disruptive black-outs and shortages It is crucial and necessary to involve consumers in demand response management through differential tariff Developed countries retro fitting smart grids Danger of mega cities emerging in the developing world through sheer population size without modern logistics to ensure safe and secure electric supply Solution: We have to find a technology solution which minimises power demand, gives quality supply, is remotely controlled and involves participation of consumers. As life in a mega city is controlled by electricity the installation of Smart Grid is no longer a luxury or a brand idea. It has become a necessity. CHARACTERISTICS and BURDENS of MEGA CITIES Contd.
DELHI : A MEGA CITY WITH CHALLENGES From a small town of 0.4 million in early twentieth century Delhi is home to nearly 17 million people today The National Capital Region NCR has a population of over 48 million Highest per capita income in India By 2012 population of Delhi 23 million NCR will be 64 million 3.63 million households and an electricity consumer base of 3.33 million Peak Power Demand met in : 3490 MW in 2012 : 5600 MW Aggregate Technical & Commercial Power loss in 2002 : 52%, 2011 : 18% Contd.
Vast improvement in distribution control system post Public Private Partnership in 2002 Further reduction in losses hampered by some urban and rural pockets having high power and material theft and malpractices Quality of power in villages poor on account of long distribution feeders Regulator has imposed Renewable Power Purchase obligations. No local renewable source except solar. Space constraint for any solar farm in congested urban area Number of private vehicles has risen from 2.75 million in to 5.30 million in Large scale introduction of Metro Rail Service to provide Mass Rapid Transport to decongest roads and reduce vehicle pollution has increased dependence on electricity. DELHI : A MEGA CITY WITH CHALLENGES Contd.
Delhi : Pattern of Electricity Consumption in Source: Central Electricity Authority
YEARWISE STATUS OF AT&C LOSSES FOR PRIVATE DISTRIBUTION COMPANIES IN DELHI (IN PERCENTAGE) Distribution Company Opening Levels of AT & C Loss* BYPL57.2Target Achievement BRPL48.1Target Achievement NDPL48.01Target Achievement *AT & C Loss : Aggregate Technical and Commercial Loss.
MAKING DELHI SUSTAINABLE Conserve scarce water through waste water recovery and rain water harvesting Building Designs to be energy efficient Solar reflecting roofs and water heating Encourage Roof Top Solar power Widespread use of CFL/LED lighting Subsidised power tariff for low power consumption Strong public campaign for consumer awareness to install energy efficient labeled appliances Scrapping coal based thermal power stations Replaced with gas fired stations Erect a world class Metro Rail network to substitute petrol/diesel driven vehicles. In 2012, Delhi Metro has 160 KM corridor carrying 2.2 million passengers daily with an average trip length of 15 Km By 2017 nearly 4 million passengers By 2021nearly 250 km corridor to carry 10.8 million passengers daily with an average trip length of 15 Km Issue : How to optimise power demand and availability
POWER SECTOR MODERNISATION VITAL FOR DELHI Delhi has become highly dependent on a secure and reliable power supply system without adequate generation of its own Delhi is part of Northern Region (NR) which has met a peak demand of 40,000 MW this summer. Peaking shortage in NR has been 12-14% though Delhi has virtually no peaking shortage. Delhi is part of an interconnected NR, WR, ER, NER grid of about 80,000 MW Owing to over drawls and grid indiscipline by some constituents there were two successive grid collapses on 30 th July and 31 st July 2012 after almost 10 years leading to huge disruption for some hours Large base load Coal Thermal Power means large off peak surplus. Need to curtail it through Smart Grid analytics and solutions Distribution and Transmission networks need urgent modernisation and intelligent grids, as well as islanding of Delhi Delhi being a national capital needs to immediately develop a smart grid to ensure safe supply, discipline consumers, optimise power requirement and improve quality of supply
KEY CHALLENGES IDENTIFIED BY A DELHI DISTRIBUTION COMPANY High Loss area High loss DT Hostile consumers Payment collection Consumer Engagement ABT tariff Involvement of consumer Demand response Break down Response Failure information Alternate feed Fault isolation Rural Electrification. Long feeders High technical loss O&M difficulties 4
What is a Smart Grid? Smart Grid is the integration of intelligent IT technologies, basic electricity principles, and processes into transmission and distribution networks, with the use of smart meters for the mutual benefit of grid controllers, distribution companies and consumers, thereby optimizing the use of minimal installed capacity and ensuring system stability with self healing characteristics Sensors & control devices Distributed & renewable generation and storage Smart Meters & load control Consumers HAN, smart appliances & Plug-in electric cars. Consumer applications & options enabled by last –mile communication Grid-side applications supported by a fibre back bone and powerful IT
Smart Grid Characteristics 20 th Century Grid21 st Century Smart Grid ElectromechanicalDigital One-way communications (if any)Two-way communications Built for centralised generationAccommodates distributed generation Radial topologyNetwork topology Few sensors (limited to Zone SCADA)Monitors and sensors at all levels of T&D network “Blind”Self-monitoring & timely Manual restorationSemi-automated restoration and, eventually self- healing Prone to failures and blackoutsAdaptive protection and islanding Check equipment manuallyMonitor equipment remotely Emergency decisions by committee and phoneDecision support systems, predictive reliability Limited control over power flowsPervasive control systems Limited price informationFull price information Few customer choicesMany customer choices Source : Energy Networks Association
Smart Grid – Key Components Customer ApplicationsGrid Applications -In home displays (access consumption data from appliance and not meter) -Direct load control via smart appliances -Home automation (load control of high priority smart appliances) - Volt-VAR Control -Fault detection, Isolation and Restoration -Sub-station and feeder monitoring and diagnostics -Wide area measurement Smart Meters -Remote meter reading -Real time consumption and power factor data -Two way communications to: Set Supply capacity limits De-engerisation and re-engerisation Provide direct load control of customer appliances (via home area networks ) Remote service checking Other utility meters (e.g. water) via HAN Integration of renewables and distributed generation IT Systems and back office - Enhanced system control, network planning, operations and maintenance
RURAL DISTRIBUTION CHALLENGES IN DELHI To enable improvement in reliability and quality of rural electricity in Delhi it was decided by the distribution company to design a Smart Grid Rural Electrification Network to meet one of the four identified challenges. Problems in Identified Villages Technical loss 15%, AT&C loss 50%, low voltage, long feeders Material theft Billing & Collection difficulties. Hostile and aggressive consumers Difficult physical disconnection Long breakdown: need to make fault intimation, isolation and alternate feed instantaneous Fault forecasting Solution Install Renewable Energy Distribution with Smart Grid as a win- win Solution. It will also be cheaper to install solar panels in rural area to meet Renewable Power Obligation
SMART GRID MATURITY MODEL Is a Management tool developed for electric utilities under the aegis of Carnegie Mellon University, USA, to Map the current state of smart grid deployment and capability within an electric utility Help in establishing future strategies and work plans for Grid modernization Help organizations to bridge gaps between Smart Grid strategy and execution Share vision of the smart grid with internal and external stakeholders Prioritize options and measure success of Smart Grid Implementation The Delhi distribution company model has been validated by Carnegie Mellon USA which believes that the company is at a right position to start Smart Grid implementation
Local Intelligence Intelligent Unit Data Concentrator Communication Meter On Pole Supply Quality & Measurement Alarm Connect / Disconnect Server Consumer APFC Transformer Supply Connect/Disconnect (pole level) DT Meter Change Over Isolator LAN / WAN (RF / PLCC) GPRS / GSM / Optical Fibre x Shackle Point/ Alternate feed Power Line Data Line Generation PROPOSED SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
Distribution Transformer PoleConsumer AMI Technology DT Automation & Smart APFC Green Club & Consumer Interactive Display Concentrator Meter Communication Pole Meter Communication Consumer Meter Communication Load On-Off KWh Display AMR I/O LT ACB automation Sensors Pole Meter Communication Interactive Display Communication Load On-Off Frequency based Off Component design should be Flexible, modular and scalable SMART NETWORK – PHASE ONE COMPONENTS
Proposed site for Renewable Distribution with SG Name of site – Village Pandwala Kalan, Najafgarh DT electrical parameters Nos of DTs……… 03 Rating ….. Each 400KVA Feeder length (HT)….. 12~14KM Consumer tagging.. Yes Consumer brief Nos of consumers…… 1000 DT loss (%)……….. >50% Any shackle joint…. YES Infrastructure Communication….. GSM/ CDMA Road……………… YES Generation capacity 50 KW Solar/Solar Wind Cost Rs. 5 Million Approx US$ 0.1 Million System Cost Rs. 45 Million
AMI Solution - Features Bi-Directional Communication Supply connect disconnect Remote Connect/ Disconnect Intelligent unit at DT Alarms – power failure Meter on pole Technical loss computation Energy Audit Compliance with CEA specification
AMI-Remote Connect/ Disconnect The command can be executed on-line Can disconnect/reconnect customer based on defaults/ request Server keeps history of Connection/ Disconnection in Database Provides Pre or Post payment option without any change in the hardware Logic based auto-disconnectNegatives Load limiterCyber Security Concerns Peak load limiterData Privacy (Crime etc.) Load type limiter
Benefits of Replicable Model Huge T&D loss can be contained by local generationNo fuel costLeast MaintenanceQuality PowerRenewable purchase obligation (RPO)Quick ROIReliable and quality powerMitigating Climate change concern & carbon credits
Anil Razdan Former Secretary Power Government of India