Presentation on theme: "Contributing to Health Systems Strengthening Guiding principles for national tuberculosis programmes (Stop TB Policy paper)"— Presentation transcript:
Contributing to Health Systems Strengthening Guiding principles for national tuberculosis programmes (Stop TB Policy paper)
Content Definitions / Framework for HSS The six components of a health system Weaknesses, do’s and don’ts for each component Questions to be raised during a review of a NTP on the Health System Conclusions
Definitions Health System: “A Health System consists of all organizations, people and actions whose primary intent is to promote, restore or maintain health Health Systems Strengthening: ”Building capacity in critical components of health system to achieve more equitable and sustained improvements across health services and health outcomes
Global Health Agencies and Initiatives (GHAI’s) WHO Stop TB partnership: Remove critical barriers to improve program results (case finding, treatment results) Roll Back Malaria: HSS to enable malaria control UNAIDS GFATM: Single disease / Cluster of the 3 core diseases GAVI: Improving critical components of a health system to improve health outcomes (vaccination coverage) WB: Getting Health Reform right (does not earmark) IHP +: Fosters a process of national health plan development UNITAID }
Health systems (WHO. Everybody’s Business 2007) Service delivery Improved health (level and quality) Health workforce Information Medical products, Vaccines, technologies Financing Leadership / Governance Responsiveness Social and Financial Risk Protection Improved Efficiency Access Quality Coverage Safety Overall goals / Outcomes Six building blocks
Components A.Help improve health policies, human resources development, financing, supplies, service delivery and information B.Strengthen infection control in health services, other congregate settings and households C.Upgrade laboratory networks, and implement the Practical Approach to Lung Health (PAL) D.Adapt approaches from other fields and sectors, and foster action on the social determinants of health
Service delivery Weaknesses Lack of integration of service delivery between different levels of the system and between different public health programs. Lack of comprehensive policy and plan for optimal utilization of existing health providers. Limited capacity to plan and manage health care provision, including contracting, certification and accreditation of public and private providers. Limited use of quality standards and evidence-based guidelines. Poor systems for referral and information exchange between providers Do harmonize management and supervision structures with general health system managerial structures, plan delivery of diagnostic and treatment services with the authorities responsible for planning service delivery harmonize quality standards with general health system quality standards; share experience of and expertise in engaging all public and private care providers Don't plan or implement supervision and quality control in isolation from general health service supervision and quality control; create incentives structures that distort priority-setting and/or performance in other areas of work among managers and supervisors.
Health workforce Weaknesses Lack of basic information about the number, composition and distribution of all health providers (public and private) and the type and quality of the services they provide. Insufficient coordination of human resource development across different parts of the health system and between different public health programmes, e.g. TB and AIDS programmes. Inadequate size and competence of the health workforce. Weak structure and poor quality of educational systems for health professionals Absent, unclear or non-performance-based career opportunities. Poor supervision and quality control mechanisms. Perverse incentives linked to employment policies, salary structure and payment mechanisms. Do use a systematic approach to determine HR needs for TB servicces and develop long-term strategic plans to enable alignment with general human resource development strategies and plans; collaborate and coordinate with other public health programmes share experiences of engaging the health workforce outside the public sector Don't develop TB-specific solutions to speed up the implementation of interventions develop implementation plans for human resources development without being realistic about the time needed
Information Weaknesses Poor quality of vital statistics and demographic information. Weak general systems for disease surveillance and poor disease notification system. Lack of data on patterns of health care utilization. Limited skills for analysing existing data at service and supervisory levels. Limited capacity for health systems research and operational research. Do ensure that the TB recording and reporting system is harmonized within national health information systems while sharing experiences on how it can be used as a model for analyzing and making full use of routine data for local performance improvement; align monitoring requirements with overall poverty and health monitoring master plans in the country and work with donors to consolidate reporting demands; share information from TB monitoring and evaluation, including performance and programme management data, to help map health system deficiencies and opportunities; seek common platforms for any service- or population-based surveys Don't create new indicators without careful consideration of overlap and inconsistency with general health system performance indicators; demand unnecessary process indicators or special reports on performance beyond routine reporting requirements.
Medical products, Vaccines, Technologies Weaknesses Weak regulation of medical products and/or weak enforcement mechanisms Weak systems for procurement, distribution and management of drugs and equipment. Weak mechanism for promoting rational use of drugs. Do plan actions to strengthen the capacity of laboratory services for sputum smear microscopy, culture, drug susceptibility testing and new diagnostic tools in concert with relevant planning units, public laboratory authorities, other public health programmes, and across public and private providers, in order to avoid duplication and unnecessary transaction costs; develop national procurement, distribution and stock management systems that are harmonized and (when relevant and possible) integrated within general supply systems; ensure that urgent temporary systems, if required to ensure safe and timely delivery, are planned with central authorities and that support is provided to replace them by integrated systems as quickly as possible. Don't develop or maintain parallel systems for laboratory or drug management when strong general laboratory and drug management systems are in place or under development.
Financing Weaknesses Limited general health sector budgets and caps on expansion of health resources. Unfair financing systems, e.g. little or no coverage of health insurance functions Weak mechanisms for tracking financial flows Weak mechanisms for strategic resource allocation and purchasing of services. Do align budgets and programme-specific financial flows within MTEFs as far as is feasible, pool domestic and international NTP funding into a "mini- basket" fund for TB control or use larger pooled mechanisms if there is a clear budget for TB control; pursue policies that reduce patients' out-of-pocket spending on health care Don't create parallel administration, reporting and monitoring systems for different sources of external funding; create unnecessary transaction costs through unsynchronized planning.
Leadership / Governance (stewardship) Weaknesses Weak capacity for health policy analysis, priority setting, sector policy development and central health sector management. Poor coordination between different parts of ministries of health Poor coordination between different public sector entities involved in health care planning and implementation Decentralization without sufficient central coordination to secure adequate disease control measures. Weak health sector regulation Non-existent or weak policy on the role of the private health care sector Limited engagement with civil society Do maximize alignment of TB programme planning with overall health sector planning frameworks; collaborate across public health programmes to promote joint planning and share programmatic policies and strategies; improve coordination of external technical assistance for TB with other technical assistance; when engaging NGOs and the private sector, ensure that the stewardship function remains with the ministry of health and that major financing is not diverted to private sector providers. Don't develop national TB control strategies and implementation plans in isolation from overall health system planning.
Integration Service delivery Health Workforce Information Medical technologies Financing Leadership / governance Horizontal integration Vertical integration (combination) TBHIVM alaria
NTPs to participate in health care planning and financing frameworks processes for aligning donor funding streams with a comprehensive health sector plan and budget, such as sector-wide approaches (SWAps); budgeting mechanism that aims to bring a multiyear perspective to the annual budgeting cycle, such as medium-term expenditure frameworks (MTEFs) strategies for broad-based growth and poverty reduction, such as Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) and associated credits.
HSS mindset harmonization of the TB control planning and budgeting process with sector-wide planning frameworks; optimized use of shared resources such as frontline health staff (including community health providers) reduction of duplicative structures.
“Non negotiable functions” for TB control Evidence based clinical care Public health approaches Sound management functions
Context of integration Nature of supportive health structures varies across settings Experience shows that a limited set of core TB-specific structures may be required The degree of integration is negotiable, based on solid evidence on effectiveness and cost- effectiveness
Six broad questions for a NTP review 1)How are the NTP and its functions integrated within the general health system? 2)What specific health system weaknesses constitute barriers for TB control? 3)What health sector development processes/reforms are planned or ongoing, and what positive or negative impact might they have on TB control? 4)To what extent is the NTP involved in influencing these processes/reforms, and how can the NTP become more proactive? 5)To what extent is the NTP adhering to the "dos and don'ts" while protecting the "non-negotiables"? 6)How can the NTP further improve the positive impact of program implementation on the health system, through applying “dos and don'ts” principles for HSS?
In particular, NTPs should ensure that: Tuberculosis continues to be considered a public health priority. Specifically: – TB is explicitly addressed in sector strategy, planning and policy documents. – TB control is included in any essential or basic package of health services. – Anti-TB drugs are included in any essential drugs package. – A selected number of TB control indicators are used in routine reports of a unified health management and information system. There is a clear and results-based operational plan for implementation of the Stop TB Strategy in the context of a national health sector plan and supported by clear commitments of financial, human and other resources. There is TB management capacity with competencies in policy and planning, budgeting and logistics Normally, this means that there is: – one dedicated senior staff member with overall accountability for TB control within the country. – dedicated staff to ensure uninterrupted and timely supply of anti-TB drugs. – dedicated staff to manage the TB control information system, – sufficient operational budget for the national unit – dedicated and well-defined TB supervision capacity at the provincial/district level.
Conclusion Approach to HSS within the Stop TB strategy is on strategic integration while safeguarding non-negotiable core TB functions