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IIT Kanpur. Prayer May He protect us Both together May He nourish us Both together May we Both acquire Strength together Let our study be brilliant.

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Presentation on theme: "IIT Kanpur. Prayer May He protect us Both together May He nourish us Both together May we Both acquire Strength together Let our study be brilliant."— Presentation transcript:

1 IIT Kanpur

2 Prayer May He protect us Both together May He nourish us Both together May we Both acquire Strength together Let our study be brilliant May we not Cavil at each other Avert Bodily, Natural and Supernatural Hindrances May He protect us Both together May He nourish us Both together May we Both acquire Strength together Let our study be brilliant May we not Cavil at each other Avert Bodily, Natural and Supernatural Hindrances

3 IIT Bombay IIT Delhi IIT Guwahati IIT Kanpur IIT Kharagpur IIT Madras IIT Roorkee Ganga River Basin Management Plan Saturday, February 5,2011 PBCEC, IIT Kanpur Coordinator: Dr Vinod Tare, Professor Environmental Engineering and Management Programme Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur KANPUR - INDIA by

4 GRBM: Objective Maintenance and restoration of wholesomeness of Ganga system and improvement of its ecological health with due regard to conflict of interest in water uses in entire river basin

5 Challenge  Continuously flow ( )  Un-polluted Flow ( ) )  Longitudinal, lateral and vertical connectivity  Adequate space for various river functions  Ecological entity

6 Apply modern science and new technologies but with traditional wisdom Gyan Dhara + Jana Gyan Our Philosophy Supportive Capacity and Assimilative Capacity Stop/Arrest Deterioration of the River Systems Operate to Mimic Natural Conditions Reverse/Restore

7 W ORKING P APERS … Active Flood Plain Mapping - Defining the “River Space” Riverbank and River Water Quality Management Plan Sewage Treatment – Recommendations and Guidelines Plan for Construction, Operation and Maintenance – Sewage Collection, Treatment and Disposal Infrastructure Proposed under GRBMP

8 Active Flood Plain Mapping – Defining the “River Space” A river must have ‘adequate space’ to perform its myriad function. The river ‘valley’ and ‘active floodplain’ define that space for the river albeit with different functionality. It is important that the functionality of the river valley and floodplains are recognized and documented properly for a sustainable river management.

9 Haryana Rajasthan Madya Pradesh West Bengal Bihar UP Kanpur Yamuna Ganga Ram Ganga Kali Yamuna Gomti Ghagar Gandak Son Ganga Kosi Delhi Banaras Allahabad Uttarkashi Rishikesh Haridwar Garh Mukteshwar Patna Lucknow Mathura Agra Riverbank and River Water Quality Management Plan

10 1.R EMOVAL OF E NCROACHMENTS AND L AND A CQUISITION 2.R ESTRICTION / B ANNING OF U NDESIRABLE A CTIVITIES 3.R IVERBANK B EAUTIFICATION AND D EVELOPMENT 4.S EWAGE D IVERSION W ORKS 5.S EWAGE T REATMENT P LANTS 6.S TORAGE, T RANSPORT AND R EUSE I NFRASTRUCTURE FOR T REATED W ATER AND S LUDGE

11 IMPORTANCE OF RRWQMP Actionable items prescribed in all RRWQMPs, when taken together, constitute the comprehensive list of all projects to be completed in the next 25 years for comprehensive riverbank and river water quality management for all major towns in the Ganga River basin. Once this comprehensive information of all projects to be funded over the next 25 years is available with the NGRBA, DPRs can be invited from ULBs for selected projects in a phased manner. A readily available record of projects completed, ongoing and not yet sanctioned can be kept. The progress of various towns towards completion of works recommended in RRWQMPs will be readily available. Since the quantum of work to be done over the next 25 years is known, yearly funding requirements towards RRWQMP related can be readily computed and a 25 year plan of funding requirements can also be made. Agencies other than NGRBA can also fund works recommended in RRWQMP. In future, even ULBs can initiate some works based on internal accruals or using the PPP model. Riverbank and River Water Quality Management Plan

12 W ORK PACKAGES For each ‘Actionable Item’ mentioned above, several work packages must be proposed in a phased manner until 2035 for gradual fulfillment of the final objective. The proposed work packages must have sufficient details such that DPRs can be prepared for these work packages by the ULBs as and when funding is available from NGRBA and other agencies. Riverbank and River Water Quality Management Plan

13 Sewage Treatment – Guidelines and Recommendations General Sewage is a major point source of pollution. The target of “Nirmal Dhara” i.e. unpolluted flow can be achieved if discharge of pollutants in the river channel is completely stopped. Also, sewage can be viewed as a source of water that can be used for various beneficial uses including ground water recharge through surface storage of treated water and/or rain/flood water in an unlined reservoir. This may also help achieving “Aviral Dhara”.

14 In order to reduce substantial expenditure on long distance conveyance of sewage as well as treated water for recycling, decentralized treatment of sewage is advisable. As a rule, sewage treatment plant (STP) of greater than 50 MLD should be avoided. All new developments must build in water recycling and zero liquid discharge systems. Fresh water intake should be restricted only to direct human-contact beneficial uses of water. For all other uses properly treated sewage/wastewater should be used wherever sufficient quantity of sewage is available as a source water for such purposes. All new community sanitation systems must adopt recycling of treated water for flushing and completely isolate fecal matter until it is converted into safe and usable organic manure. Sewage Treatment – Guidelines and Recommendations

15 R ECOMMENDED T REATMENT C HAIN Sewage Treatment – Guidelines and Recommendations

16 Stage IPreliminary Treatment: a) Three Stage Screening: - 25 mm bar racks (before pumping) - 12 mm bar racks - 5 mm mesh b) Aerated Grit Chamber if following unit operation is aerobic and Normal Grit Chamber if following unit operation is anaerobic. Expected effluent quality after preliminary treatment: No floating materials including polythene bags, small pouches, etc. Proper collection and disposal of screening and grit. Sewage Treatment – Guidelines and Recommendations

17 Stage IIPrimary and/or Secondary Treatment: Many options are available for second stage treatment. These options can be grouped into following three categories. Pond Based Systems or Activated Sludge Process (ASP) and Its Modifications or equivalent systems including but not limited to SBR, UASB followed by ASP, ASP operated on Extended Aeration mode (EA-ASP), ASP with Biological Nutrient Removal (ASP+BNR), and MBBR or MBR Expected effluent quality after primary and secondary treatment: BOD < 30 mg/L SS < 20 mg/L Nitrified effluent Sewage Treatment – Guidelines and Recommendations

18 Stage III Tertiary Treatment: Coagulation-flocculation-settling followed by filtration and UV disinfection. Expected effluent quality after tertiary treatment: BOD < 10 mg/L SS < 5 mg/L Phosphate < 0.5 mg/L MPN < 100/ 100 mL Where sewage flows are low and/or land can be spared without compromising on other developmental objectives or agriculture, waste stabilization ponds followed by constructed wetland can be adopted without coagulation-flocculation-settling. Sewage Treatment – Guidelines and Recommendations

19 C OST OF T REATMENT AND L AND R EQUIREMENT Treatment Cost (as in 2010) and Corresponding Plant Footprint for various Secondary Treatment Options Sewage Treatment – Guidelines and Recommendations

20 S LUDGE M ANAGEMENT The sludge dewatering should be done using thickener followed by filter press or centrifuge or any other equivalent mechanical device. Sludge drying beds (SDB) should be provided for emergency only. SDBs should be designed only for 15% of the sludge generated from primary and secondary processes. The compressed sludge should be converted into good quality manure using composting and/or vermi- composting processes. Hazardous sludge, if any should be disposed of as per the prevailing regulations. Sewage Treatment – Guidelines and Recommendations

21 F LOW M EASUREMENT Flow measuring devices should be installed after the Stage I Treatment as well as at the outlet of the sewage treatment plant. These flow devices should be of properly calibrated V notch with arrangements for automatic measurement of head. Additional electronic or other type of flow meters may also be installed. Arrangements should be made for real time display of measured (both current and monthly cumulative) flows at prominent places. Sewage Treatment – Guidelines and Recommendations

22 B IOASSAY T EST 10% of the flow (subjected to maximum 1 MLD) is required to pass through the bioassay pond. Sewage Treatment – Guidelines and Recommendations

23 PLAN FOR CONSTRUCTION, OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE – Sewage Collection, Treatment and Disposal Infrastructure Proposed under GRBP R ESTORATION OF “N IRMAL ” D HARA As stated by the IIT consortium in various forums, it is strongly felt that the restoration of ‘Nirmal’ dhara in all rivers of the Ganga basin will require, among other actions, the following steps concerning sewage collection, treatment and disposal processes. Complete stoppage of the discharge of sewage, either treated or un-treated, from towns into all rivers of the Ganga basin. All sewage must be collected and treated up to tertiary level (treatment guidelines for tertiary treatment specified elsewhere; effluent standards: BOD < 10 mg/L; SS < 5 mg/L; fully nitrified effluent; P < 0.5 mg/L; FC < 100/100 mL) The treated water should be recycled or reused for various purposes, i.e., industrial, irrigation, horticultural, non- contact/non-potable domestic uses, groundwater recharge, etc.

24 Pandu River Ganga River Typical City / Town Item 1: House Connections, Laterals, Branch Sewers, Main Sewer Item 2: Trunk Sewers Item 3: Intercepting Sewers Item 4: Nala Tapping Item 5: Pumping Stations Item 6: STP Item 7: Reservoirs, Canals and Pipe lines for Treated Water

25 PLAN FOR CONSTRUCTION, OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE – Sewage Collection, Treatment and Disposal Infrastructure Proposed under GRBP S EWAGE C OLLECTION, T REATMENT AND D ISPOSAL I NFRASTRUCTURE Essential components of sewage collection, treatment and disposal infrastructure to fulfill the objectives of ‘Nirmal’ Dhara are the following. Item 1: Construction of main sewers, branch sewers, laterals and house connections in urban areas for collection of sewage from individual households. Item 2: Construction of trunk sewers in urban areas for the conveyance of the sewage to the sewage treatment plant. Item 3: Construction of intercepting sewers for diverting the flow of small ‘nalas’ into the sewer system. Item 4: ‘Nala’ tapping works for diverting discharges of large ‘nalas’ to the sewer system.

26 PLAN FOR CONSTRUCTION, OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE – Sewage Collection, Treatment and Disposal Infrastructure Proposed under GRBP S EWAGE C OLLECTION, T REATMENT AND D ISPOSAL I NFRASTRUCTURE Essential components of sewage collection, treatment and disposal infrastructure to fulfill the objectives of ‘Nirmal’ Dhara are the following. Item 5: Pumping stations for conveying sewage flowing in trunk sewers and large ‘nalas’ to sewage treatment plants. Item 6: Sewage treatment plants capable of treating sewage to tertiary levels and proper disposal/reuse of sludge produced from sewage treatment plants. Item 7: Structures like reservoirs, canals and pipelines for storage and conveyance of treated sewage for reuse.

27 PLAN FOR CONSTRUCTION, OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE – Sewage Collection, Treatment and Disposal Infrastructure Proposed under GRBP F UNDING AND I MPLEMENTATION I SSUES : C URRENT S CENARIO The land for the project was provided by the ULBs/State Governments. The capital cost of the project was provided (as per current practice) by the central and state governments in 70 : 30 ratio. Project DPR was prepared and the project implemented by government agencies like UP Jal Nigam (UPJN). After commissioning, operation and maintenance for a stipulated period, the infrastructure is handed over to ULB. Subsequent operation and maintenance of the infrastructure was the responsibility of the ULB.

28 PLAN FOR CONSTRUCTION, OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE – Sewage Collection, Treatment and Disposal Infrastructure Proposed under GRBP F UNDING AND I MPLEMENTATION I SSUES : C URRENT S CENARIO - The main deficiencies In many cases, due to the lack of regular maintenance, and lack of allocated funds, the created infrastructure deteriorated at a rapid rate and became non-operational very quickly. The sewage treatment plant capacity was often underutilized, since sewage conveyance and pumping infrastructure was either non-existent or was not functioning properly. Adopted sludge management practices were insufficient for safe and secure management of solid residues arising from sewage treatment operations.

29 PLAN FOR CONSTRUCTION, OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE – Sewage Collection, Treatment and Disposal Infrastructure Proposed under GRBP F UNDING AND I MPLEMENTATION I SSUES : C URRENT S CENARIO - The main deficiencies Uninterrupted electricity supply was not ensured for the pumping stations and sewage treatment plants, leading to constant disruptions and sub-optimal performance. DG sets provided for operation of pumping stations during power cuts were mostly non-operational. Performance monitoring of the completed projects was not done in an objective and systematic basis, and effective action was not taken to improve the performance of the created infrastructure based on such monitoring. Public participation/involvement in project monitoring was minimal.

30 PLAN FOR CONSTRUCTION, OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE – Sewage Collection, Treatment and Disposal Infrastructure Proposed under GRBP F UNDING AND I MPLEMENTATION I SSUES : C URRENT S CENARIO - The main deficiencies The net effect is that in most cases, the diversion of sewage from the rivers and treatment and safe disposal of domestic sewage as envisaged during project planning is never realized.

31 PLAN FOR CONSTRUCTION, OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE – Sewage Collection, Treatment and Disposal Infrastructure Proposed under GRBP F UNDING AND I MPLEMENTATION I SSUES : N EW P ARADIGM ItemDescriptionFunding Item 1: Construction of main sewers, branch sewers, laterals and house connections in urban areas for collection of sewage from individual households. This is primarily a responsibility of the towns and must be funded through internal resources or through help from other sources. Should not be funded from the funds allocated for river cleaning/restoration Item 2: Construction of trunk sewers in urban areas for the conveyance of the sewage to the sewage treatment plant. Funding of the capital expenditure should be through NGRBA and state government (70:30 ratio). Maintenance should be the responsibility of the ULB. Item 3: Construction of intercepting sewers for diverting the flow of small ‘nalas’ into the sewer system. Item 4:Construction of ‘Nala’ tapping works for diverting discharges of large drains to the sewer system or directly to sewage treatment plants. Table Continued … … …

32 PLAN FOR CONSTRUCTION, OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE – Sewage Collection, Treatment and Disposal Infrastructure Proposed under GRBP F UNDING AND I MPLEMENTATION I SSUES : N EW P ARADIGM ItemDescriptionFunding Item 5: Pumping stations for conveying sewage flowing in trunk sewers and large ‘nalas’ to sewage treatment plants. Entire funding should be through NGRBA and state government in the ratio depending upon the type of technology chosen. Central funding percentage to be larger for projects requiring larger land area and hence low O&M. This type of infrastructure must be built through private participation using the DBO model and as per guidelines stipulated by NGRBA. Item 6: Sewage treatment plants capable of treating sewage to tertiary levels. Item 7:Structures like reservoirs, canals and pipelines for storage and conveyance of treated sewage for reuse. Funding should be through NGRBA-state government (only reservoirs), MoWR-state irrigation department (reservoirs and canals) and private players (pipelines).

33 PLAN FOR CONSTRUCTION, OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE – Sewage Collection, Treatment and Disposal Infrastructure Proposed under GRBP P RIVATE P ARTICIPATION : D ESIGN -B UILD -O PERATE (DBO) M ODE - The income to the private party will be from three sources, Annual payment of a fixed cost by the ULB towards the capital cost of the facilities developed. This payment will be over the entire design period (15 years) of the project and will be clearly specified in the contract. Annual payment for O&M costs by the ULB, which will increase yearly and will also depend on the quantity of treated water produced. Payments will be over the entire design period (15 years) of the project and maximum payments for each year will be clearly specified in the contract.

34 PLAN FOR CONSTRUCTION, OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE – Sewage Collection, Treatment and Disposal Infrastructure Proposed under GRBP P RIVATE P ARTICIPATION : D ESIGN -B UILD -O PERATE (DBO) M ODE - The income to the private party will be from three sources, Part of the profit (if any), from commercial exploitation of resources generated through sewage treatment, i.e., treated water, sludge and sludge- derived products, as specified in the contract. DBO M ODEL : P UBLIC M ONITORING

35 Alternative Funding Plan for Sewage Treatment Plants Constructed under GRBMP Public – Ownership and Monitoring Private – Investment and Delivery 3R’s Responsibility, Respect and Returns Align the interest of all stakeholders than alienate any one

36 …….Financing Plan for STP STP Characteristics Excellent Preliminary Treatment: Triple Screen and Aerated Grit Chamber Equalization Tank followed by primary sedimentation Conventional Activated sludge for secondary treatment Tertiary treatment: coagulation/flocculation, sedimentation, filtration Sludge management: Centrifuge, belt filter press, etc. Bioassay pond for treated effluent Capital Cost The Capital Cost for such a STP is Rs. 80 Lacs/MLD (2010 prices) Capital cost for a 50 MLD STP is thus Rs. 400 Crores (2010 Prices)

37 …….Financing Plan for STP Recurring Costs (2010 Prices): 50 MLD STP Power Cost: 2.65 Lacs/year/MLD Repair/Renovation/Re-Investment Cost: Rs Lacs/year/MLD Chemical Cost: 0.30 Lacs/year/MLD Manpower Costs Manager: 4.8 Lac/year Chemist: 2.4 Lac/year 12000/person/month = Rs Lac/year Skilled Technicians (8): Rs. 9000/person/month = Rs Lac/year Unskilled Labor (15): Rs 8000/person/month = 14.4 Lac/year Total: Rs. 36 Lacs/year Benefits: 50% of total = 12 Lacs/year Total Manpower Cost = Rs Lacs/year/MLD Total Recurring Cost: 7.11 Lacs/year/MLD

38 …….Financing Plan for STP Present Model: Time Horizon is 15 years Payment of capital cost by central and state government in 70:30 ratio. –Payment Plan assuming 2 year construction period 1.25 percent of payment at the start of construction 2.50 percent of payment after 1 year 3.Balance 25 percent of payment after 2 years/end of construction Payment of the recurring cost for the first five years of the plant operation by central and state government in 70:30 ratio Payment of the recurring cost from the 6 th to the 15 th year of the plant operation by the ULB.

39 …….Financing Plan for STP Proposed Model: Time Horizon is 15 years Construction, operation and maintenance of the STP by a service provider for the entire period Capital cost for construction to be raised by the service provider through a loan from a financial institution. Assuming 2 year construction period 1.25 percent of loan to be taken at the start of construction 2.50 percent of loan after 1 year 3.Balance 25 percent of loan after 2 years/end of construction The loan to be paid back by the service provider in 180 monthly installments starting from the first month of plant operation Payments to be made to the service provider by central and state governments in 70:30 ratio in 180 monthly installments from start and up to the 15 th year of plant operation. A monthly installment shall consist of the following components 1. Capital cost Installment 2. Recurring cost 3. Management % of the recurring cost 4. Service % of recurring cost + management fee

40 …….Financing Plan for STP Financial Comparison: Present vs Proposed Basis for Comparison is the NPV in January 2012 Interest Rate: 10 percent per annum, compounded monthly Inflation: 6 percent Start of Construction: January 2012 End of Construction: December 2013 Start of Operation: January 2014 End of Operation: December 2028

41 Monthly Payments: Proposed vs Present …….Financing Plan for STP

42 Cumulative Payments: Present vs Proposed …….Financing Plan for STP

43 Break-up of NPV: Present Model …….Financing Plan for STP Total NPV (2012) = Rs Crores

44 Break-up of NPV: Proposed Model …….Financing Plan for STP Total NPV (2012) = Rs Crores

45 Proposed Model: Real Values of Monthly Payments for Selected Months …….Financing Plan for STP Payment in January 2014 (1 st Installment): Rs Lacs Payment in December 2028 (last Installment): Rs Lacs

46 …….Financing Plan for STP Present vs Proposed Model The difference in NPV between the proposed and current model is Rs Crores Of the above amount, –Management Fee (Rs Crores) accounts for 29.04% –Service Tax (Rs Crores) accounts for 22.95% –The balance amount of Rs Crores (48.1%) is attributed to the interest charges on borrowed capital cost inherent in the proposed model. Explanation: Assuming the capital cost of the project in January2012 (Rs Crores) is invested at 10 percent compound interest (compounded monthly) up to December Assuming the yearly inflation rate is 6 percent, The NPV (2012) of the interest thus accrued is Rs crores. Conversely, borrowing Rs Crores in January 2012 under the same circumstances will result in an interest payment whose NPV (2012) is Rs Crores by the time the loan is fully repaid in December 2028.

47 …….Financing Plan for STP Present vs Proposed Model Cost of Treatment (in January 2012): Present Model: 0.38 paisa /L of treated sewage Proposed Model: 0.50 paisa /L of treated sewage

48 Thank You


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