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1 UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLIES JOHN LIGUORI CONSULTING ENGINEER MSEE, PE PRESENTED TO THE IEEE LONG ISLAND CONSULTANT’S NETWORK 9/6/06.

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Presentation on theme: "1 UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLIES JOHN LIGUORI CONSULTING ENGINEER MSEE, PE PRESENTED TO THE IEEE LONG ISLAND CONSULTANT’S NETWORK 9/6/06."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLIES JOHN LIGUORI CONSULTING ENGINEER MSEE, PE PRESENTED TO THE IEEE LONG ISLAND CONSULTANT’S NETWORK 9/6/06

2 2 UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLIES THIS PRESENTATION IS FOR INFORMATIONAL AND EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY. IT DOES NOT CONTAIN ALL INFORMATION REQUIRED, AND IS NOT INTENDED TO BE USED FOR THE SPECIFICATION OR DESIGN OF UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLIES (UPS) OR UPS SYSTEMS.

3 3 UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLIES OUTLINE INTRODUCTION POWER DISTURBANCES UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLIES GENERAL DISCUSSION SUMMARY REFERENCES QUESTIONS

4 4 INTRODUCTION PURPOSE WHAT IS AN UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY? WHY USE A UPS?

5 5 PURPOSE THE PURPOSE OF THIS PRESENTATION IS TO DISCUSS THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLIES AVAILABLE, WHAT THE UPS PROTECTS AGAINST, THE COMPONENTS OF A UPS, AND ISSUES REGARDING SELECTION AND SIZING. THE DIFFERENT TYPES AND CAUSES OF POWER DISTURBANCES ARE DISCUSSED, AS WELL AS WHAT THE POWER UTILITY, THE ORIGINAL EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURER, AND YOU, CAN DO TO MINIMIZE THEIR EFFECT.

6 6 WHAT IS AN UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY? AN UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY (UPS) IS A DEVICE THAT HAS AN ALTERNATE SOURCE OF ENERGY THAT CAN PROVIDE POWER WHEN THE PRIMARY POWER SOURCE IS TEMPORARILY DISABLED THE SWITCHOVER TIME MUST BE SMALL ENOUGH TO NOT CAUSE A DISRUPTION IN THE OPERATION OF THE LOADS

7 7 WHY USE A UPS? PROTECTS AGAINST MULTIPLE TYPES OF POWER DISTURBANCES ONLY DEVICE THAT PROTECTS AGAINST AN OUTAGE OFFERS PROTECTION AGAINST  EQUIPMENT NOT OPERATING PROPERLY  COMPUTER AND EQUIPMENT DAMAGE  DATA LOSS  TIME AND EXPENSE TO RECOVER BACK TO WHERE YOU WERE, IF EVEN POSSIBLE

8 8 POWER DISTURBANCES CAUSES TYPES DURATION RESULTING PROBLEMS COMMENTS WHAT THE POWER UTILITY CAN DO WHAT THE ORIGINAL EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURER (OEM) CAN DO WHAT YOU CAN DO PROTECTIVE DEVICES

9 9 CAUSES OF POWER DISTURBANCES STORM ACTIVITY – LIGHTNING, WIND, ICE OBJECTS COMING IN CONTACT WITH POWER LINE AND TRIPPING BREAKER – TREE BRANCHES, ANIMALS, OTHER UTILITY FAULT CLEARING CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITY ACCIDENTS – MOTOR VEHICLE, OTHER EQUIPMENT FAILURE OVERLOADING LOAD SWITCHING NON-LINEAR LOADS POOR GROUNDING ESD

10 10 TYPES OF POWER DISTURBANCES INTERRUPTION SAG, UNDER VOLTAGE SURGE, OVER VOLTAGE VOLTAGE FLUCTUATION FREQUENCY VARIATION SPIKES / TRANSIENTS  IMPULSIVE  OSCILLATORY WAVEFORM DISTORTION  DC OFFSET  HARMONICS  INTERHARMONICS  NOTCHING  NOISE VOLTAGE IMBALANCE

11 11 DURATION OF POWER DISTURBANCES INSTANTANEOUS-½ CYCLE (8 1/3 ms) OR LESS MOMENTARY-½ CYCLE TO 3 SEC TEMPORARY- 3 SEC TO 1 MIN SUSTAINED- GREATER THAN 1 MINUTE

12 12 CLASSIFICATION OF PROBLEMS RESULTING FROM POWER DISTURBANCES DISRUPTIVE  EQUIPMENT DOES NOT OPERATE AS INTENDED DISSIPATIVE  EQUIPMENT EXPERIENCES REPEATED STRESSES THAT LEAD TO FAILURE LATER FOR NO APPARENT REASON DESTRUCTIVE  EQUIPMENT FAILS AT THE INSTANT THE DISTURBANCE OCCURS

13 13 PROBLEMS RESULTING FROM POWER DISTURBANCES DATA ERRORS DATA LOSS BLOWN FUSES TRIPPED BREAKERS INTERFERENCE WITH CONTROL OF LOADS OVERLOADED NEUTRAL CONDUCTORS MOTORS  HEATING  SPEED VARIATION  STALLING  AUDIBLE NOISE  VIBRATION TRANSFORMERS  HEATING  AUDIBLE NOISE  VIBRATION

14 14 POWER DISTURBANCES - COMMENTS NOT ONLY IS MODERN EQUIPMENT MORE SUSCEPTIBLE TO POWER DISTURBANCES, BUT THE EQUIPMENT ITSELF GENERATES MORE DISTURBANCES ALL LOADS, FROM LARGE POWERFULL MOTORS AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT TO SMALL, SENSITIVE ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS, ARE CONNECTED TO THE SAME POWER GRID

15 15 WHAT THE POWER UTILITY CAN DO TO MINIMIZE THE EFFECT OF POWER DISTURBANCES INSTALL STORM RESISTANT WIRING USE INFRA RED SCANNING TO DETECT WEAK SPOTS IN POWER LINES INSTALL REMOTE CONTROLLED RADIO SWITCHES TO RESTORE POWER QUICKLY CLEAR TREE LIMBS AWAY FROM POWER LINES

16 16 WHAT THE OEM CAN DO TO MINIMIZE THE EFFECT OF POWER DISTURBANCES BUILD EQUIPMENT CONTAINING ONE OR MORE INTERNAL PROTECTIVE DEVICES  SURGE PROTECTIVE DEVICES  LINE FILTERS  ISOLATION TRANSFORMER  BATTERY OR CAPACITOR BACK UP TO INCREASE RIDE THROUGH TIME

17 17 WHAT YOU CAN DO TO MINIMIZE THE EFFECT OF POWER DISTURBANCES BUY EQUIPMENT THAT HAS INTERNAL PROTECTIVE DEVICES  FOR EXAMPLE, BATTERY BACK UP FOR ANY APPLIANCE THAT CONTAINS A CLOCK USE ONE OR MORE EXTERNAL PROTECTIVE DEVICES  SURGE PROTECTORS  LINE FILTERS  ISOLATION TRANSFORMER  VOLTAGE REGULATING LINE CONDITIONER  UPS

18 18 PROTECTIVE DEVICES OTHER THAN UPS SURGE PROTECTIVE DEVICES – SPD’S PROTECTS AGAINST SPIKES OF LIMITED ENERGY  METAL OXIDE VARISTORS – MOV  DIODES  GAS TUBES  LCR FILTERS  HYBRIDS LINE FILTERS FILTERS OUT HARMONICS, TRANSIENTS AND NOISE ISOLATION TRANSFORMER ELIMINATES DC OFFSET AND NOISE VOLTAGE REGULATING LINE CONDITIONER AUTOMATICALLY ADJUSTS FOR UNDER AND OVER VOLTAGES  CONSTANT VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER - CVT  MOTORIZED VARIAC

19 19 POWER DISTURBANCES AND PROTECTIVE DEVICES

20 20 UPS ARCHITECTURES WAVEFORMS INVERTER TECHNOLOGY COMPONENTS SWITCHOVER TIME ADVANTAGES / DIS-ADVANTAGES SIZING BATTERY SAFETY

21 21 UPS ARCHITECTURES LINE INTERACTIVE ON-LINE

22 22 BLOCK DIAGRAM LINE INTERACTIVE UPS BATTERY CHARGER AC SUPPLY INVERTER DC TO AC CRITICAL LOAD (AC) BATTERY AUTOMATIC SWITCH AC FAIL

23 23 BLOCK DIAGRAM ON-LINE UPS CONVERTER AC TO DC AC SUPPLY INVERTER DC TO AC CRITICAL LOAD (AC) BATTERY AUTOMATIC SWITCH INVERTER FAIL

24 24 BLOCK DIAGRAM LAPTOP COMPUTER POWER SUPPLY CONVERTER AC TO DC AC SUPPLY CONVERTER DC TO DC BATTERY CRITICAL LOAD (DC)

25 25 UPS WAVEFORMS TRUE SINEWAVE MODIFIED SINEWAVE SQUARE WAVE

26 26 UPS WAVEFORMS

27 27 INVERTER TECHNOLOGY FOR TRUE SINEWAVE PULSE WIDTH MODULATION - PWM LINEAR AMPLIFIER RESONANT INVERTER

28 28 BLOCK DIAGRAM PWM INVERTER HIGH FREQUENCY GENERATOR PULSE WIDTH MODULATOR BASE / GATE DRIVE TRANSISTOR BRIDGE TRANSFORMERFILTER CRITICAL LOAD (AC) REFERENCE SINEWAVE GENERATOR COMPARISON AMPLIFIER DC POWER

29 29 BLOCK DIAGRAM LINEAR AMPLIFER INVERTER OSCILLATOR AMPLIFIER SINEWAVE OSCILLATOR TRANSFORMER COMPARISON AMPLIFIER POWER AMPLIFIER CRITICAL LOAD (AC) DC POWER

30 30 BLOCK DIAGRAM RESONANT INVERTER SQUARE WAVE GENERATOR SWITCH DRIVE TRANSISTOR SWITCHES TRANSFORMER LC RESONANT TANK FILTER CRITICAL LOAD (AC) DC POWER (OR FERRORESONANT)

31 31 UPS COMPONENTS CONVERTER - AC TO DC  SPD - PROTECTS AGAINST SPIKES AND TRANSIENTS BATTERY  STORED ENERGY DEVICE - PROTECTS AGAINST INTERRUPTIONS INVERTER – DC TO AC  WAVEFORM SYNTHESIS – PROTECTS AGAINST DC OFFSET AND INTERHARMONICS  FILTER – PROTECTS AGAINST HARMONICS, NOTCHING AND NOISE  VOLTAGE REGULATOR – PROTECTS AGAINST SAGS, SURGES AND FLUCTUATIONS MONITOR AND CONTROL HARDWARE / SOFTWARE

32 32 SWITCHOVER TIME A TYPICAL SWITCHOVER TIME2 – 4 ms ONE QUARTER CYCLE OR LESS FOR SOME EQUIPMENT THIS IS NOT TOLERABLE

33 33 ADVANTAGES / DIS-ADVANTAGES OF THE DIFFERENT UPS ARCHITECTURES LINE INTERACTIVE ADVANTAGES  AC TO DC CONVERTER / BATTERY CHARGER DOES NOT HAVE TO PROVIDE FULL LOAD POWER (POTENTIALLY CHEAPER)  LESS STRESS ON DC TO AC INVERTER SINCE IT RUNS AT NO LOAD UNTIL UPS SWITCHES TO BATTERY POWER (POTENTIALLY CHEAPER) ON-LINE ADVANTAGES  ZERO SWITCHOVER TIME FROM MAIN LINE TO BATTERY POWER  ALWAYS ISOLATED FROM POWER DISTURBANCES ON THE MAIN LINE

34 34 SIZING THE UPS EQUIPMENT RATINGS FOR LOADS  OBTAIN RATINGS FROM NAMEPLATE OR SPEC SHEET  ENERGY USAGE MAY BE SPECIFIED IN VOLT AMPS (VA) OR WATTS (W) AND IN VALUES THAT ARE EITHER MAXIMUM OR NOMINAL  (VA) AND (W) ARE RELATED VIA THE POWER FACTOR TOTAL UPS LOAD MUST NOT EXCEED THE UPS VOLT AMP (VA) RATING TOTAL UPS LOAD MUST NOT EXCEED THE UPS WATT (W) RATING OVERSIZE / DERATE TO ADD LIFE RUNTIME CHARTS

35 35 UPS SIZING – EXAMPLE SPREADSHEET

36 36 BATTERY SAFETY MAINTENANCE  INSPECT PERIODICALLY  REPLACE AS NEEDED RISKS  ACID  ELECTRIC SHOCK  BURN  FLYING, MOLTEN METAL (EYES)  INJURIES RESULTING FROM CARRYING HEAVY BATTERY PACKS DISPOSAL  DISPOSE OF PROPERLY  RECYCLE WHENEVER POSSIBLE

37 37 GENERAL DISCUSSION DOES A UPS OFFER COMPLETE PROTECTION? DO YOU THINK “POWER DISTURBANCES WON’T HAPPEN TO YOU” ? MISCELLANEOUS

38 38 DOES A UPS OFFER COMPLETE PROTECTION? SOME POWER DISTURBANCES MAY EXCEED THE HANDLING CAPABILITY OF THE UPS UPS FAILURE

39 39 DO YOU THINK “POWER DISTURBANCES WON’T HAPPEN TO YOU” ? POWER DISTURBANCES OCCUR FREQUENTLY, THOUGH MANY ARE SMALL AND WITHOUT CONSEQUENCE AN ON-LINE UPS CAN PROTECT AGAINST MORE SIGNIFICANT POWER DISTURBANCES WHEN THEY DO OCCUR THE COST OF NOT HAVING A UPS CAN EASILY EXCEED THE COST OF A UPS

40 40 MISCELLANEOUS MANY RETAIL UPS FOR COMPUTER APPLICATIONS ARE LINE INTERACTIVE MANUFACTURERS AND BUILDING CODES DO NOT ALLOW EXTENSION CORDS OR SURGE SUPPRESSORS TO BE USED WITH A UPS

41 41 SUMMARY THINGS TO CONSIDER WHEN SPECIFYING A UPS POWER QUALITY  ARCHITECTURE - LINE INTERACTIVE OR ON-LINE  WAVEFORM - SQUARE, MODIFIED SINE, TRUE SINE  IMMUNITY TO DISTURBANCES OTHER THAN OUTAGE RUN TIME WITH AN OUTAGE RELIABILITY AUDIBLE NOISE MONITOR AND CONTROL HARDWARE / SOFTWARE  LOC AL / REMOTE CONTROL INITIAL COST MAINTENANCE COST WARRANTY

42 42 REFERENCES IEEE STANDARD RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR POWERING AND GROUNDING SENSITIVE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT IEEE STANDARD RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR MONITORING ELECTRICAL POWER QUALITY

43 43 QUESTIONS


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