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**QUALITY AND TECHNOLOGY**

quality of the electrical energy

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**COMPENSATORS A NEW CONCEPT IN HARMONIC FILTERING HARMONIC PROBLEMS**

POLYLUX has developed a series of electromagnetic filters for the elimination of harmonics named ‘Compensators’. These equipments are based on the cancellation and compensation of magnetic fluxes COMPENSATORS A NEW CONCEPT IN HARMONIC FILTERING The main advantage of the Compensator is the absence of electronic components and capacitors. The Compensators are therefore maintenance free, have an extremely long lifetime compared with other types of filters and are compatible with any electrical installation

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**HARMONIC PROBLEMS IN OFFICE BUILDINGS**

Computer equipment in office buildings generate elevated levels of harmonics which cause important problems in the electrical installation 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th L1 L2 L3 N Distribution panel 3rd, 9th UPS Computer equipment The triplen harmonics (3rd, 9th...) are especially harmful as these sum in the neutral conductor and generate a high neutral current causing serious failures and damages in the installation Phase current Neutral current

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**Why such a high neutral current?**

HARMONIC PROBLEMS IN OFFICE BUILDINGS Distribution panel Computer equipment 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th UPS L1 L2 L3 N 3rd, 9th Why such a high neutral current? Phase Currents The neutral current is the sum of all phase currents L1+L2+L3 There is a 120º phase shift between fundamental currents, the sum in the neutral is therefore practically zero in a balanced system Neutral Current There is no phase shift between the 3rd harmonic currents therefore in the neutral you get the sum of all 3rd harmonic currents Neutral current can be higher than the phase current. For example, having fundamental 100A and 3rd harmonic 60A in each phase, you will have 180A 3rd harmonic in the neutral

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**PROBLEMS CAUSES HARMONIC PROBLEMS IN OFFICE BUILDINGS**

Malfunctioning and failure in computer equipment Overheating of neutral conductors Low efficiency and overheating of UPS, transformers and cables of the installation Tripping of protections without apparent reason Interferences in communication networks Incremented power consumption Low quality electrical energy. Elevated harmonic voltage distortion Elevated neutral – earth voltage High harmonic distortion in the current Excessive levels of 3rd and 9th harmonics in the neutral conductor Elevated true RMS current in the phases Low power factor due to harmonics Elevated losses in the electrical installation

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**HARMONIC PROBLEMS IN OFFICE BUILDINGS **

HARMONIC PROBLEMS IN OFFICE BUILINGS COMPENSATOR C10D + C20D Elimination of the 3rd, 9th, 15th harmonic The C20D Compensator provides a very good cost-filtering relation. It gives a strong reduction of the triplen harmonics and eliminates the overload in the neutral conductor and the high neutral – earth voltage Distribution panel 5th, 7th 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, 15th L1 L2 L3 N Impedance Adapter C10D UPS 3rd, 9th, 15th Computer equipment The C20D Compensator has to be installed with the C10D Impedance Adapter to obtain the most optimised filtering PATENT PENDING Compensator C20D Phase current Neutral current

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**HARMONIC PROBLEMS IN OFFICE BUILDINGS**

COMPENSATOR C10D + C20D Elimination of the 3rd, 9th, 15th harmonic FILTERING RESULTS: Reduction of the neutral current and neutral – earth voltage up to 75% Reduction of phase currents up to 15% Reduction of voltage and current distortion up to 45% Obtain power factor up to 0,80

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**HARMONIC PROBLEMS IN OFFICE BUILDINGS **

HARMONIC PROBLEMS IN OFFICE BUILINGS COMPENSATOR C10D+C20D AND C22D+C10D Elimination of harmonic 3, 5, 7, 9, 15, 17, 19 The C22D Compensator offers elevated filtering of the 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, 15th, 17th, 19th harmonics, solving all problems caused by harmonics. The C22D+C10D is used in combination with the C20D + C10D, each of these supplies 50% of the load to be filtered Impedance Adapter C10D Compensator C22D 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, 15th -5th, -7th UPS L1 L2 L3 N Distribution panel Computer equip. 50% load Impedance Adapter C10D 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, 15th 5th, 7th The C20D and C22D have to be installed with C10D Impedance Adapters for optimised filtering Computer equip. 50% load Phase current Neutral current Compensator C20D

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**HARMONIC PROBLEMS IN OFFICE BUILDINGS**

COMPENSATOR C10D+C20D AND C22D Elimination of harmonic 3, 5, 7, 9, 15, 17, 19 FILTERING RESULTS: Reduction of the neutral current and neutral – earth voltage up to 80% Reduction of phase currents up to 40% Reduction of voltage and current distortion up to 75% Obtain power factor up to 0,95

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**HARMONIC PROBLEMS IN OFFICE BUILDINGS**

COMPENSATOR C25D Elimination of the 3rd, 9th, 15th harmonic The C25D Compensator is totally eliminating the triplen harmonics (3rd, 9th, 15th), avoiding any type of overload in the neutral as well as a high neutral-earth voltage produced by harmonics Distribution panel 5th, 7th 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, 15th L1 L2 L3 N Compensator C25D UPS WITH GALVANIC ISOLATION Computer equipment Thanks to its galvanic isolation, the C25D Compensator represents the ideal solution in case of a high level of 3rd harmonic voltage. Additional advantages are: reduction of the electromagnetic disturbances coming from the supply network, optional voltage adaptation and the possibility to use independent earths as the neutral is isolated from the mains Phase current Neutral current

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**HARMONIC PROBLEMS IN OFFICE BUILDINGS**

COMPENSATOR C25D Elimination of the 3rd, 9th, 15th harmonic FILTERING RESULTS: Reduction of the neutral current and neutral – earth voltage up to 90% Reduction of phase currents up to 15% Reduction of current distortion up to 45% Reduction of voltage distortion up to 40% Obtain power factor up to 0,80

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**HARMONIC PROBLEMS IN OFFICE BUILDINGS**

COMPENSATOR C25D + C25D-180º Elimination of harmonic 3, 5, 7, 9, 15, 17, 19 The C25D Compensator is available in two versions offering different phase shifts (0º and 180º) for the 5th and 7th harmonic. By combining both versions, elimination of the 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, 15th 17th and 19th is obtained WITH GALVANIC ISOLATION 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, 15th, 17th, 19th 5th, 7th, 17th, 19th UPS Distribution panel Compensator C25D L1 L2 L3 N Computer equipment 50% load Distribution panel 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, 15th, 17th, 19th -5th, -7th, -17th, -19th Distribution panel Compensator C25D-180º Phase current Neutral current Computer equipment 50% load

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**HARMONIC PROBLEMS IN OFFICE BUILDINGS**

COMPENSATOR C25D + C25D-180º Elimination of harmonic 3, 5, 7, 9, 15, 17, 19 FILTERING RESULTS: Reduction of the neutral current and neutral – earth voltage up to 90% Reduction of phase currents up to 45% Reduction of voltage and current distortion up to 85% Obtain power factor up to 0,96

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**HARMONIC PROBLEMS IN OFFICE BUILDINGS **

HARMONIC PROBLEMS IN OFFICE BUILINGS COMPENSATOR C30D Elimination of harmonic 3, 5, 7, 9, 15, 17, 19 The C30D Compensator achieves the highest filtering level. It eliminates the 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, 15th, 17th and 19th harmonic and provides additional advantages like: reduction of electromagnetic disturbances, optional voltage adaptation and the use of independent earths 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, 15th, 17th, 19th UPS Distribution panel L1 L2 L3 N Compensator C30D Computer equipment 50% load 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, 15th, 17th, 19th Distribution panel WITH GALVANIC ISOLATION Phase current Neutral current Computer equipment 50% load

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**HARMONIC PROBLEMS IN OFFICE BUILDINGS**

COMPENSATOR C30D Elimination of harmonic 3, 5, 7, 9, 15, 17, 19 FILTERING RESULTS: Reduction of the neutral current and neutral – earth voltage up to 90% Reduction of phase currents up to 45% Reduction of voltage and current distortion up to 85% Obtain power factor up to 0,96

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**HARMONIC PROBLEMS IN INDUSTRY**

Frequency converters and variable speed drives which are usual in today’s industrial installations generate harmonic currents that reduce the quality of the electrical energy 5th, 7th, 11th, 13th 5th, 7th, 11th, 13th Frequency converter Motor 5th, 7th, 11th, 13th Frequency converter Motor Transformer Capacitor bank Motor PLC Computer The frequency converters generate mainly 5th and 7th harmonic currents as well as voltage notches and transients (spikes). Voltage Current

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**PROBLEMS CAUSES HARMONIC PROBLEMS IN INDUSTRY**

Malfunctioning and failure in electronic equipment Overheating and failure in transformers and cables Overload and failure in capacitor banks Low efficiency of transformers and cables Tripping of protections without apparent reason Overload and failure in motors Interferences in communication networks Low quality electrical energy. Elevated harmonic voltage distortion Notches and transients in the voltage caused by power converters Elevated harmonic distortion in the current Resonance in capacitor banks Elevated true RMS current in the phases Low power factor due to harmonics

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**HARMONIC PROBLEMS IN INDUSTRY**

RTL LINE INDUCTORS Reduction of harmonic 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19 The RTL line inductors provide the most optimised cost-filtering relation of all harmonic filtering solutions available in the market. It features a very significant filtering of the whole harmonic spectrum 5th, 7th, 11th, 13th 5th, 7th, 11th, 13th RTL line inductor Frequency converter Motor 5th, 7th, 11th, 13th Transformer Frequency converter Capacitor bank RTL line inductor Motor Motor PLC Computer Additionally it eliminates the notches and transients generated by the power converters avoiding mal-functioning and failure in electronic devices Voltage Current

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**30% 60% 0,93 Reduction of phase currents up to**

HARMONIC PROBLEMS IN INDUSTRY LINE INDUCTOR RTL Reduction of harmonic 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19 FILTERING RESULTS: Reduction of phase currents up to 30% Reduction of voltage and current distortion up to 60% Obtain power factor up to 0,93

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**HARMONIC PROBLEMS IN INDUSTRY**

COMPENSATOR C10F Elimination of harmonic 5, 7, 17, 19 The C10F Compensator is used in case a high filtering level is requested. The C10F is installed in such a way that it supplies 50% of the load to be filtered while the other 50% is supplied directly 5th, 7th, 17th, 19th 50% load -(5th, 7th, 17th, 19th) Compensator C10F 5th, 7th, 17th, 19th 5th, 7th, 17th, 19th Transformer Capacitor bank 50% load PLC Computer For optimised filtering and elimination of voltage notches, RTL line inductors should be installed as well, especially for power converters above 5 kW PATENT PENDING Voltage Current

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**HARMONIC PROBLEMS IN INDUSTRY**

COMPENSATOR C10F Elimination of harmonic 5, 7, 17, 19 FILTERING RESULTS: C10F C10F + RTL Reduction of phase currents up to 20% 35% Reduction of voltage and current distortion up to 60% 85% Obtain power factor up to 0,95 0,98

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**HARMONIC PROBLEMS IN INDUSTRY**

COMPENSATOR C20F Elimination of harmonic 5, 7, 17, 19 The C20F Compensator achieves the highest protection level for industrial installations, featuring a high filtering level and galvanic isolation of the load. The C20F has two outputs, each supplying 50% of the load 5th, 7th, 17th, 19th 50% load 5th, 7th, 17th, 19th Transformer Compensator C20F Capacitor bank WITH GALVANIC ISOLATION 50% load PLC Computer For optimised filtering and elimination of voltage notches, RTL line inductors should be installed as well, especially for power converters above 5 kW Voltage Current

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**HARMONIC PROBLEMS IN INDUSTRY**

COMPENSATOR C20F Elimination of harmonic 5, 7, 17, 19 FILTERING RESULTS: C20F C20F + RTL Reduction of phase currents up to 20% 35% Reduction of voltage and current distortion up to 60% 85% Obtain power factor up to 0,95 0,98

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**High level of harmonic filtering Economic **

COMPENSATORS The Advantages High level of harmonic filtering Economic No electronics or capacitors, therefore maintenance free and an extremely long lifetime No generation of high frequency distortions Easy selection, no exhaustive study of the installation is necessary

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**Compensators election**

HARMONIC FILTERING QUICK SELECTION GUIDE Galvanic isolation? Compensators election Combination with RTLX Installation Harmonics C25D-180 C25D-0 3rd 9th 15th… YES NO NO C10D + C20D C30D C25D-0+C25D-180 3rd 5th 7th 9th … YES C10D+C20D + C10D+C22D NO YES 5th 7th 17th… YES C20F NO C10F Note: For filtering of the 5th and 7th harmonics, the load should be divided in two groups (see application guides)

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