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Transcription and Translation Flip Book Your Name Your Class Period.

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Presentation on theme: "Transcription and Translation Flip Book Your Name Your Class Period."— Presentation transcript:

1 Transcription and Translation Flip Book Your Name Your Class Period

2 Transcription Flap Definition of Transcription The process by which ______ is made from part of the ______ sequence that codes for a protein (gene) Transcription is taking the original (master) blueprint DNA and making a _______ in the form of RNA This RNA blueprint will be used to assemble _________ RNA DNA copies proteins

3 Transcription Flap Steps of Transcription 1.An ______, RNA polymerase unzips the DNA molecule at the region of the gene that is being transcribed 2.Free _____________ form base pairs with their complementary nucleotides on the DNA strand 3.mRNA threads away and the _____ strand rejoins 4.mRNA leaves the _______ and goes to the cytoplasm (__________) DNA - RNA A - U T - A C - G G - C enzyme RNA nucleotides DNA nucleus ribosome

4 Transcription Flap A Codon is a group of 3 nucleotides in mRNA that specifies an ___________ (building blocks of protein) Think of the ______ as the drawings on the blueprint for the genetic code amino acid codon

5 Translation Flap Definition of Translation Use the codon of _______ to specify the sequence of amino acids to build a _____ It is time for the Blueprint (DNA-mRNA) to be read The Blueprint (______) is sent to the construction site (________) mRNA protein mRNA ribosome

6 Translation Flap Steps of Translation 1.______ arrives at the Ribosome 2.tRNA __________ are complementary to the mRNA ________ 3.tRNA picks up an __________ 4._____ delivers the amino acid to the ___________ 5.Amino acids are assembled into polypeptide chains, to form ______, held together with peptide bonds Codon Anti-codon mRNA tRNA A - U U - A G - C mRNA anti-codons condon amino acid tRNA ribosome proteins

7 -+ When the mRNA is first transcribed, there are long sequences of ___________ that are not required for the synthesis of the protein called _____. The DNA sequences that code for the protein are known as ______. Introns are edited out (cut out) of the mRNA before it leaves the nucleus and the remaining ______ are spliced together to form the final mRNA nucleotides introns exons

8 Top of Mutation Flap GENETIC MUTATIONS (pp. 307-308) A mutation is________________________. Although many mutations are harmful, some mutations are _________, and others may be very ____________ to an organism. There are two categories of mutations: A. Chromosomal Mutations A chromosomal mutation involves a change in the ______________ of the entire chromosome or a change in the total ____________ of chromosomes. Does not alter individual ________. These errors generally occur during _____________ or ____________. change in the DNA sequence silent beneficial structure number genes meiosis mitosis

9 Chromosomal Mutations

10 Bottom of Mutation Flap Gene Mutations A gene mutation is a change in one gene on an individual chromosome. This may result in a change in only one _________ or many nucleotides making up that gene might be altered. The incidence of gene mutations is relatively low due to the action of _________ that _________ the DNA sequence after __________.There are two types of gene mutations: nucleotide enzymesproofread replication

11 Bottom of Mutation Flap 1. Point Mutations – This is a change in one or just a few ___________, but the total number of nucleotides in the gene is not changed. This might have no effect, or change one amino acid. Therefore, the resulting ________ may or may not be altered. 2. Frameshift Mutations – This involves the __________ or __________ of a ____________. When a nucleotide is inserted or deleted, this shifts the reading of the remainder of the ________; therefore, the ___________ of the remainder of the mRNA is altered. This will usually result in tremendous changes in the _______________ chain and completed protein. nucleotides protein addition deletionnucleotide codons translation amino acid

12 Gene Mutations

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