2Tricksters May or may not be god-like “liminal”: at the edge, on the borderAppetites and reasonMorally problematicGreedy manipulatorCulture heroDestroy in order to recreate (354)
3Raven Myth of Sitka: cosmology “no one knows”; “all sorts of ways”Creation of lightNeeds to get into house where there is lightImpregnates daughter asexuallyKeeps crying for objects that contain lightStars, moon, sunExposes light to fishers of “eulachon”
4Raven Myth at Wrangell: Background and Birth “only high-caste people knew”“Nas-ca’kiyel” (“Raven at the head of the Nass”)To whom…formerly prayed; no one had seen = “deus otiosus” = “idle god”Discuss other titlesDaughter of unknown originNo childrenPossible quasi-sociological explanationEats hot pebble: discuss names
5Raven: creation of humans Paratactic description (top and middle)Humans created twiceNas-ca’ki-yel is both father and sonBoth Raven & Nas-ca’ki-yel want lightRaven gives birth to himselfHumans made from leaves: would you rather be a leaf or rock?
6Common themes of two Raven stories Light (“noise” in 2nd version)Drops water to make bodies of water (301 bot.; 304 middle)Different land and sea animals (302 top; fuller story 304 top)Connection between hunter and huntedCaught in smoke hole and turned blackLater in the Wrangell accountFire, witches
7Why the raven? 301 middle: “that old manuring raven…” “crying for the moon” (301, 303 bot.)Why are people afraid of light?Sacralize trickery and embarrassment (301)What are the characteristics of the raven?Why are these valued or seen as culture-forming?Life’s gifts as unexpected, as coming out of reversal and upheaval
8Eulachon [“OO-li=kan”] Small migrating fishExcellent for oil; can be dried and used as candleCaught at night?
9African Trickster Tales “Why the Hare Runs Away”: note problemCommon problem & response of rabbitThe “image” & birdlime: Why does the hare salute the image?The Ant’s BurdenThe dwarf, the sticks, the songWhat do the big sticks of Anansi represent?Why is the father put in the position of the trickster?What is the moral of the exchange between father and son over the dwarf’s body?How does the story finally evaluate Anansi?Birdlime a sticky substance made from a plant to trap birds
10African-American Trickster Tales: “Why They Name the Stories for Anansi” What trait does Anansi need?How does the snake defeat Anansi at first?What character trait of the snake does Anansi use against him?What does this strategy tell us about being “the wisest and cleverest (347 bottom)”?Does the story approve or disapprove of Anansi? The snake?
11“Tricking all the kings” First king: “Massa King”The well and the tar-babyWhat does the story leave out? Why?Why is the sea better than being shot? What is the trickster always able to do?What is Buh Nansi’s home?Second king: the sharkHow does Buh Nansi appeal to the shark?Uses the “small fish” to catch the shark (Buh Nansi “leverages” his catch)
12“Tricking all the kings” (2): the lion Why does Buh Nansi invite the lion?What saves Buh Nansi?Does Buh Nansi tell the truth to his wife?The lion tries to become the trickster but lacks the skillWhat is the purpose of the dance, baby, & sheet scene?The peppers and the mealDoes the story really teach the moral it gives us?
13Prometheus as Trickster ParatacticBoth bound and freedZeus binds and approves release“Clever Prometheus was bound by Zeus” (l. 1; also see ll )Deceit of sacrificeHides meat in stomach and bones under fatZeus “chooses” bonesThus people always burn the bones (l. 46)
14Crafty Prometheus and angry Zeus If Zeus “was not deceived,” why does he “rage within” (ll. 39, 43)?How human existence always isZeus’ denial of human needs“gatherer of clouds” (l. 47); “thunders” (l. 58)“crafty” [=“cunning”] Prometheus (l. 50) & the “craft” [=“wisdom”] of Zeus (l. 51)(Denies the fire because of the deception)See l. 62
15(l. 48) Son of Iapetos, cleverest god of all Ἰαπετιονίδη, πάντων πέρι μήδεα εἰδώς,Son of Iapetos of all counsels knowsplans, artsSo friend, you do not yet forget your (l. 50) crafty tricksὦ πέπον, οὐκ ἄρα πω δολίης ἐπιλήθεο τέχνης.crafty art, skill,deceitfulSo spoke the angry Zeus,(l. 51) whose craft is everlastingὣς φάτο χωόμενος Ζεὺς ἄφθιτα μήδεα εἰδώς: imperishable counsels knows
16Prometheus in Aeschylus Discuss the implicit evaluation of Zeus’ rule in ll. 1-21List the skills Prometheus claims he gave man.In what sense is “pro-metheus” the author of these skills?What does Prometheus’ defense tell us about the nature/efficacy of Zeus’ rule?What is the “irony” of Prometheus (ll )?
17Loki: the Norse Trickster God (pp. 444-445) Assists the gods in their tricks and machinationsThor’s “maid” to regain hammerAs mare, draws away the horse of the giant making AsgardKeeps gods from having to pay the giant(Snorri) In mare form gives birth to Odin’s steed, SleipnirMocks/insults the gods in Loki’s QuarrelAs Utgard-Loki (?): “sight-deceiving magic”
18Loki’s Quarrel [=Lokasenna], introduction 1. ‘Tell me, Eldir,… / What the sons of the glorious gods here inside/ Are talking about over their ale’ 2. [Eldir] ‘They discuss their weapons and their prowess in war, … / Among the Aesir and of the elves who are within, / No one has a friendly word for you 3. [Loki]…before the end of the feast quarreling I’ll bring to the Aesir’s son’s / and thus mix their mead with malice.’The Poetic Edda, Carolyne Larrington, trans. (Oxford Univ. Press)
19Loki and Idunn17. ‘Be silent, Idunn, I declare that of all women You’re the most man-crazed, Since you place your arms, washed bright, About your brother’s slayer’ (Idunn) 18. … I quietened Bragi, made talkative with beer; I don’t want you two angry men to fight.’The Poetic Edda, Carolyne Larrington, trans. (Oxford Univ. Press)
20Loki and Odin22. ‘Be silent, Odin, you never know how to / apportion honour in war among men; / Often you’ve given what you shouldn’t have given, / Victory, to the faint-hearted’ [Odin] 23. ‘…yet eight winters you were, beneath the earth, / a woman milking cows, / and there you bore children, / and that I thought the hallmark of a pervert [=“womanish ways,” i.e., effeminate].’ [Loki] 24. ‘But you once practiced seid on Samsey, / and you beat on the drum as witches do, / in the likeness of a wizard you journeyed among mankind, / and that I thought the hallmark of a pervert.’The Poetic Edda, Carolyne Larrington, trans. (Oxford Univ. Press)
21Loki and Freyia30. ‘…of the Aesire and that elves, who are in here, Each one has been your lover.’ [Freyia calls Loki a liar] … 32. ‘Be silent, Freyia, you’re a witch And much imbued with malice, You were astride your brother, all the laughing gods surprised you, And then, Freyia, you farted. [Finally Thor returns, threatens Loki with his hammer, and Loki says he knows Thor means it.]The Poetic Edda, Carolyne Larrington, trans. (Oxford Univ. Press)
22Loki as source of destruction Responsibility for Balder’s death may be Snorri’s inventionBound, under “hot springs” with entrails of son (Völuspa, 33-34) (source of earthquakes)RagnarokImpregnates the giant-woman with the 3 monsters that will destroy the worldSteers ship that brings inhabitants of Muspell
24Characteristics of Ritual: Rites of Passage Rituals that take a person from one state of life to anotherLiminal period: “in-between”Liminal person is socially (=structurally) invisible: may act or play dead“ritually polluting”Those sharing the liminal experience are equals
25Ritual as Play Life is reconstructed, acted out in new ways Symbols, designs, masks (≈“dress-up”)E.g., Kachina masks or dolls (see p. 101)Communicates beliefs, ideas, enactments through actionThis is as much a part of life as “work”I.e., work and “ritual” are not separate parts of life (see 378-9) (contrast American religion)One must participate (see 381 bottom)Liminal periods allow “invention” of “new reality”
27The “Luminoid” (see bottom 379) Contemporary society is only like a liminal societySeparation of religion and stateSeparation of morality and communitySeparation of play and workContemporary “play” is optional (380 bot.)Levels of cultural sophisticationIrony (satire) as “pseudo-liminal”“individualized” (382 bottom), “plural”(-ism)
28Demeter and Persephone: the Story (1) Persephone = Kore (“girl”)Abducted by Hades (l. 19)In accordance with will of ZeusAbduction only viewed by sun and moonThe withdrawal of DemeterTo Eleusis, offers services as old nurse“aw, reverence, pale fear” (190)Iambe and the cup of barley-meal“man must take the gifts of the gods” (216-7, 147-8)
29Demophoön and Demeter’s Wrath Demophoön, ambrosia, and cleansing by fire“immortal…would I have made your son” (ll )“Propitiate my mind” (ll. 274, 292; also ll )Men and gods punished (ll )Give up the dead…lest men die! (ll. 345 ff.)Return of PersephoneHow does death “grab” and “trick” humanity?“do not nurse unrelenting anger” (ll )The mysteries revealed (ll )
30Outline of the Mysteries (p. 386) Procession to bring sacred objects to AthensProclamationRitual bathing, for purificationProcession of initiands to EleusisFasting, ritual bathing“obscene lyrics” (p. 395, l. 205), for women“Telesterion” [“completion”]: barley drink, opening of “Anaktoron”
31Dionysus: basic characteristics (459-61) “outside” but not an “outsider”animal passions and vitality“sap, juice, or lifeblood element in nature” (EB)Ecstasy: ec-stasis: to stand outsideDissolution of boundaries (461)Wine, nature, consumption of raw meatMyths may not describe actual rituals (460)“Transgressive;” “subversive”Carried out by city officials, people of high status
32Major Characteristics of the Myth of Dionysus Semele wants proof of divine love, diesMadnessStep-parents, kill childrenDionysos himselfLycourgos (464), Theban women, Pentheuspirates“Insult[ed] and expell[ed] (why?)“shown…he was a god”; “men came to know he was a god”
33Major Characteristics of Dionysian Rituals =Orgia (462) Drinking parties & competitions, drunkennessObscenity, cursing, phallic images, cross-dressingThe dead walk among us“Pitchers” and “Pots”Torchlight processionsDramas (“City Dionysia”), retelling of myths“wild cries that combined grief and joy” (462)
36Norse Gods and Norse Rituals: Odin “lord of hosts”Fills Valhalla with warriorsBoth gives and withdraws his favor (433)“stirs up warfare” (434)The self-dedication of Odin (also see 443)Hanging and spearingNorse replacement of Germanic “Tiwaz” = “Tyr”Valkyries: “ravens,” hanging over the battlefieldBeserkers: the madness of battle
37Havamal: the self-sacrifice of Odin 138 Wounded I hung on a wind-swept gallows For nine long nights, Pierced by a spear, pledged to Odhinn, Offered, myself to myself The wisest know not from whence spring The roots of that ancient rood 139 They gave me no bread, They gave me no mead, I looked down; with a loud cry I took up runes; from that tree I fell.
38Havamal: Odin gains power and wisdom 140 Nine lays of power I learned from the famous Bolthor, … 141 Waxed and throve well; Word from word gave words to me, Deed from deed gave deeds to me, 142 Runes you will find, and readable staves, Very strong staves, Very stout staves, Staves that Bolthor stained, Made by mighty powers, Graven by the prophetic god,
39Funeral Human Sacrifice (Ahmad Ibn-Fadlan) (a servant girl volunteers to “join” her dead master) “They gave her strong drink and admonished her to drink it quickly. After this, the girl seemed dazed. At this moment the men began to beat upon their shields, in order to drown out the noise of her cries, which might deter other girls from seeking death with their masters in the future. They laid her down and seized her hands and feet. The old woman known as the Angel of Death knotted a rope around her neck and handed the ends to two men to pull. Then with a broad dagger she stabbed her between the ribs while the men strangled her.”
42From Njals Saga (quoted in Gods and Myths of Northern Europe, Kindle Location 1104-1111) We weave, we weave the web of the spear, as on goes the standard of the brave. We shall not let him lose his life; the Valkyries have power to choose the slain. … All is sinister now to see, a cloud of blood moves over the sky, the air is red with the blood of men, as the battle-women chant their song.
43Norse Gods and Ritual: Thor Physical vitality and strengthEasily angeredHuge appetite“Son of the earth”Thor’s hammerRequired against the giants: Thrym’s Poem“sign of the hammer”: birth, and maybe deathSee 439 top, 2nd paragraph
44Day soon became evening, and ale was brought to the giants' table Day soon became evening, and ale was brought to the giants' table. There Thor ate an ox and eight whole salmons,… [and] drank three measures of mead. Thrym, the lord of giants, said, "Have you ever seen a bride eat and drink so heartily?” The maid-servant wisely answered thus: "Freyja was so eager to come to Jotunheim that she has eaten nothing for eight nights.” Thrym stooped beneath his bride's veil, wanting to kiss her, then jumped back the whole length of the hall. "Why are Freyja's eyes so fearful?" he said. "I think that fire is flaming from her eyes.” …"Freyja …has not slept for eight nights.”
45Then a poor sister of one of the giants came in and dared to beg a gift from the bride. "If you want my love and friendship then give me the gold rings from your fingers," she said. Then Thrym, the lord of giants, said, "Bring me the hammer to bless the bride. Lay Mjöllnir on the maiden's lap, let the two of us thus be hallowed in the name of Vor, goddess of vows!” When Thor saw the hammer his heart laughed within him, and he took courage. He first slew Thrym, the lord of giants,…. Finally he slew the old giantess …. Instead of rings she received the mark of Mjöllnir. Thus Thor won back his hammer.
46Fertility Gods Freyr Freyja (sister-spouse of Freyr) Human sacrifice Dancing (sexually suggestive/cross-dressing?)“make love not war” (440 top)Freyja (sister-spouse of Freyr)Fertility goddess ≈ Aphrodite, IshtarVolva (female shaman, see 441)
47Norse Shamanism Volva: the female shaman Odin as shaman Seidr: “witchcraft” (?)Incantation and ecstatic statesBird-form: fly over the landOdin as shamanLink between worldsThe “world-tree” (=Yggdrasil)The head of Mimir
48Death Rituals Death as a journey Thor’s hammer/swastika on urns/stones Ship(Lord of the Rings: last ship to the west)Thor’s hammer/swastika on urns/stonesMound, the “holy hill” (444)Odin, war, cremation