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The Halo of the Milky Heidi Jo Newberg Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

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Presentation on theme: "The Halo of the Milky Heidi Jo Newberg Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Halo of the Milky Heidi Jo Newberg Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

2 In search of a halo model that fits the data Brief background on the stellar Milky Way We tried to measure the halo shape and found the Sagittarius dwarf tidal stream. We improved our technique and found another tidal stream. Argument that the spheroid is triaxial Chi-squared triaxial spheroid fits to the data and the problem with lumps.

3 chu/gee240m/Chap_15/Sec15_1.html

4 Ben Moore’s N-body site

5 The Standard Galactic Model Radial scale length (kpc) 0.2 2.9 4-5 3.5-5 2-3 Bulge Spheroid Thick Disk Thin Disk Dark Halo Vertical scale height or c/a 0.4 0.6-1 1.3 kpc 325 pc 1? Density near Sun (M sol /pc 3 ) 0.00026 0.026 0.124 0.009 Metallicity [Fe/H] 0.3 -1.5 -0.6 -0.1 V rot at R sol (km/s) 0-50 180 220 0? Allen’s Astrophysical Quantities, 2000

6 The first attempt to measure the shape of the Galactic halo using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey It was 1998. We had the first scan of data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. I had been writing software for 6 years. Brian Yanny and I thought we would try to measure the flattening parameter of the Galactic spheroid:

7 Pal 5 Globular Cluster

8 Yanny et al. 2000 Log(luminosity in wavelength range of g filter) Log(ratio of lum. in λ range of g filter to lum. in λ range of r filter)

9 Galactic Center Yanny et al. 2000

10 150,000 light years 100,000 light years Size of northern lump: 20 kpc by > 2 kpc by < 10 kpc

11 Kathryn Johnston

12 Newberg et al. 2003

13 A tremendous number of papers exist studying the Sgr dwarf tidal stream Measurements of density, position, and stellar velocities of stream stars. Models of dwarf disruption, that depend on the Galactic potential (various papers claim that q=1, q>1, q<1) Models that show the Sgr dwarf interacted with the LMC several billion years ago, which threw it into this destructive orbit. Possibility that the Sgr dwarf tidal stream goes through the solar position, and that it could contribute ~1% to the dark matter density at the Earth. Theoretical limits on the lumpiness of the Galactic dark matter halo. Claim that a Galactic globular cluster was stripped from the Sgr dwarf and is currently in the tidal stream.

14 Galactic Center Yanny et al. 2000

15 Newberg et al. 2002


17 Squashed halo Spherical halo Exponential disk Prolate halo Newberg et al. 2002


19 Press release, November 4, 2003 Blue – model Milky Way Pink – model planar stream

20 Current controversies Turf war over name: Monoceros stream, stream in the Galactic plane, Galactic Anticenter Stellar Structure (GASS), One Ring or “Ring,” Canis Major dwarf galaxy, Argo structure. Is the entire structure due to the Galactic warp? How many times does the stream wrap the Galaxy? Has the Canis Major dwarf galaxy been discovered, and is it the progenitor of the tidal stream? Did this merger puff up, or even create the Galactic thick disk? Is it related to the “metal-weak thick disk?” Is the purported Canis Major dwarf galaxy really an artifact of the Galactic warp? Is the purported Canis Major structure really an artifact of a hole in the Galactic extinction – and the real center of the structure in the Argo Navis Constellation? Is the Argo structure the Galactic warp?

21 Newberg et al. 2002

22 (l,b) ~ (10,40) Spheroid star selection box

23 Density of spheroid stars in Galactic coordinates from DR3 Galactic longitude Galactic latitude 1,857,142 stars

24 Density of spheroid stars in Galactic coordinates from DR3 Galactic latitude Galactic longitude

25 Stars typically 10 kpc from the sun

26 Density of spheroid stars in Galactic coordinates from DR3 Galactic latitude Galactic longitude

27 -90 900-4545

28 (l,b) ~ (10,40) Thick disk selection box

29 Galactic latitude Galactic longitude Density of thick disk stars from DR3 623364 stars


31 θ gLong For close stars, the maximum density is in quadrant IV and the minimum is is quadrant II. For distances larger than the Sun-GC dist., the max. is in quadrant I and the min. is in quadrant II. For large distances, the minimum is perpendicular to the major axis of the spheroid.

32 155°

33 Finding a model No model of the commonly used form will work. The triaxial power law still puts too many stars in the Galactic center. The Hernquist profile fits better, but leaves excess counts in the south.

34 Minimum Chi-squared model Full model R 0 8.0 kpc p0.73 q0.67 θ48° R core 15.0 kpc dx0.1 kpc dy3.5 kpc dz0.1 kpc φ-8.0° ξ12° α1 δ3 M f 4.2 N solar 1081 kpc -3 χ 2 1.37


36 123359 stars

37 234306 stars

38 190221 stars

39 159632 stars

40 123359 stars

41 115416 stars

42 165620 stars

43 150562 stars

44 Minimum Chi-squared model Full model GC power law GC power law standard model R 0 8.0 kpc 8.5 kpc 8.0 kpc 8.5 kpc 10.7 kpc p0.73 0.73 0.74 0.72 1.0 q0.67 0.60 0.66 0.59 0.63 θ48° 70 52 72 - R core 15.0 kpc 14.0 kpc - - - dx0.1 kpc - 0.2 kpc - - dy3.5 kpc - 3.0 kpc - - dz0.1 kpc - 0.0 kpc - - φ-8.0° -4.5 -6.5 -4.0 - ξ12° 14 16 14 - α1 1 2.9 3.0 3.1 δ3 3 0 0 0 M f 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.2 N solar 1081 kpc -3 1096 kpc -3 1412 kpc -3 1341 kpc -3 1539 kpc -3 χ 2 1.37 1.42 1.49 1.51 1.92

45 Full Hernquist Centered Hernquist Full Power Law Centered Power Law Traditional Power Law

46 Local density of stellar halo 0.00026 M sol /pc 3 (Allen’s Astrophysical Quantities, 2000) 1100-1500 F stars/kpc 3 at the solar position (this talk) In Pal 5, the ratio M sol /F stars ~ 5, therefore, we estimate a local density of: 5.5x10 -6 -7.5x10 -6 M sol /pc 3 (30-50 times smaller than Allen)

47 Conclusions A large part of the Galactic halo is inhabited by lumps and tidal streams with size scales of the order of 10 kpc. The smoothest component we can find is biased towards a non-axisymmetric shape and a Hernquist rather than a power-law profile. One cannot measure q from a pencil-beam survey or even a strip of the sky 100 degrees long.

48 SEGUE as of September 30, 2004 Black= completed stripe or plate pair Imaging: 3900 sq deg, mostly low |b|; 750/3900 sq deg  19% complete Spectra: 240,000 stellar spectra; 29/400 plates  7% complete (17K stars)

49 11 kpc Galactic Center Stars in the smooth “spheroid” population Pal 5 globular cluster Sagittarius dwarf tidal stream Sagittarius dwarf Tidal stream Sun Newberg et al. 2002

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