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Talk to me about our graduate program in astrophysics.

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Presentation on theme: "Talk to me about our graduate program in astrophysics."— Presentation transcript:


2 Talk to me about our graduate program in astrophysics

3 Overview (1) The Milky Way spheroid (a) tidal debris (b) dwarf galaxies and globular clusters (c) global properties of spheroid stars (2) The Virgo Overdensity and the Big Toe of Hercules (3) Open problems and the need for a larger spectroscopic survey Milky Way stars (RAVE, SEGUE II, LAMOST, WFMOS) (4) The promise and challenges of LAMOST


5 The SDSS survey was funded as an extragalactic project, but Galactic stars could not be completely avoided.

6 Celestial Equator

7 Newberg et al. 2002

8 Vivas overdensity, or Virgo Stellar Stream Sagittarius Dwarf Tidal Stream Stellar Spheroid? Monoceros stream, Stream in the Galactic Plane, Galactic Anticenter Stellar Stream, Canis Major Stream, Argo Navis Stream Pal 5

9 Press release, November 4, 2003 Blue – model Milky Way Pink – model planar stream Tidal Stream in the Plane of the Milky Way Sun Canis Major or Argo Navis Monoceros, stream in the Galactic plane, Galactic Anti-center Stellar Stream (GASS) If it’s within 30° of the Galactic plane, it is tentatively assigned to this structure TriAnd,TriAnd2 Explanations: (1)One or more pieces of tidal debris; could have puffed up, or have become the thick disk. (2)Disk warp or flare (3)Dark matter caustic deflects orbits into ring

10 Hercules-Aquila Cloud Areal density of SDSS stars with 0.1 { "@context": "", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "", "name": "Hercules-Aquila Cloud Areal density of SDSS stars with 0.1

11 Belokurov et al. 2006 Summary of Spheroid Substructure Dwarf galaxy streams: (1) Sagittarius: Ibata et al. 2001a, Ibata et al. 2001b, Yanny et al. 2000 (2) Canis Major/Argo Navis?  Monoceros (Newberg et al. 2002, Yanny et al. 2003), GASS (Frinchaboy et al. 2004), TriAnd (Majewski et al. 2004), TriAnd2 (Martin, Ibata & Irwin 2007), tributaries (Grillmair 2006) (3) ?? Orphan stream, Grillmair 2006, Belokurov et al. 2006 (4) ?? Virgo Stellar Stream, Vivas et al. 2001, Newberg et al. 2002, Zinn et al. 2004, Juric et al. 2005, Duffau et al. 2006, Newberg et al. 2007 Globular cluster streams: (1)Pal 5: Odenkirchen et al. 2003 (2) ?? Grillmair & Dionatos 2006 (3) NGC 5466: Grillmair & Johnson 2006 Odenkirchen et al. 2003 Other: (1) Hercules-Aquila Cloud

12 Doubling the known dwarf galaxies orbiting the Milky Way galaxy Canis Major/Argo dwarf galaxy in Galactic plane; Martin et al. 2004, Rocha-Pinto et al. 2006 Eight new dwarf galaxies in Ursa Major, Canes Venatici, Bootes, Ursa Major II, Coma Berenices, Canes Venatici, Leo, and Hercules; Willman et al. 2005, Zucker et al. 2006a, Belokurov et al. 2006, Zucker et al. 2006b & Grillmair 2006, Belokurov et al. 2007 Belokurov et al. 2007

13 Techniques for finding spatial substructures (1)Select a tracer of known luminosity to use as a distance indicator. (2)Select a tracer that can be used statistically to measure distance to a structure (3)Convolve with a presumed color- magnitude distribution Yanny et al. 2000 Pal 5 globular cluster BHBs F turnoff M giants K giants (need spectra)

14 g0g0 (g-r) 0

15 M3, [Fe/H]= -1.57 M5, [Fe/H]= -1.27 M71, [Fe/H]= -0.73 NGC 6791, [FE/H]= +0.15 An et al. (2008)

16 Global properties of the spheroid Newberg & Yanny (2005), Xu, Deng & Hu (2006, 2007) – the spheroid may be triaxial Juric et al. (2008) – Distance estimates to 48 million stars, fit smooth components and identify large lumps Bell et al. (2008) – Smooth power law is a very poor fit to the spheroid density, 4 million F turnoff stars Xue et al. (2008) – 2401 BHB stars fit rotation curve of Galaxy to find dark matter halo mass of 1 x 10 12 solar masses Carollo et al. (2008) – Two component spheroid model, kinematics of 10,123 F subdwarfs within 4 kpc of the Sun

17 Newberg et al. 2002 CMD in the direction of the Virgo Stellar Stream F turnoff stars in Virgo Spheroid turnoff stars are slightly redder Thick disk turnoff is much redder


19 Newberg, Yanny et al. 2007 Sgr stream S297+63-20.5 21 { "@context": "", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "", "name": "Newberg, Yanny et al.", "description": "2007 Sgr stream S297+63-20.5 21

20 Newberg, Yanny et al. 2007 Sgr leading tidal tail S297+63-20.5, Virgo Stellar Stream Lower density bifurcation? Cross section through the Galaxy in the plane of the Sgr dwarf orbit. The 2MASS M giant stars from Majewski et al. (2003) are points. The symbols are positions measured from SDSS BHB or F turnoff stars. Sgr dwarf Sgr Trailing tail

21 Undergraduate Matt Harrigan used SDSS/SEGUE spectroscopy of BHB stars to find a moving group of half a dozen stars in the constellation Hercules Clumped in position, radial velocity, and magnitude Significantly low metallicity

22 Outstanding Problems The data is more complex than the models, both for the structure and dynamics of spheroid substructure. How do we compare them? What does the dark matter potential of the Milky way look like? We have yet to successfully extract information about the Galactic potential from tidal streams. How many stellar components are there in the Milky Way, and how do we describe them? What is the detailed structure of the Milky Way’s disk? How is it related to Monoceros/ Canis Major? How many small galaxies merged to create the Milky Way, and when? Describe the chemical evolution of the Galactic disk(s). So far, advances have primarily come from reducing the data size to analyze very clean samples. How do we utilize all of the partial chemical, kinematic, and spatial information at the same time?

23 The Future of Galactic structure Great progress is being made in understanding galaxy evolution by statistical studies of external galaxies. In the Milky Way, we have the opportunity to learn the whole history of one galaxy instead of comparing snapshots of many. It is only now that we have large surveys of the whole sky that we are able to comprehend the Milky Way as a whole. Unlike external galaxies, the picture we are building is in three dimensions of position and velocity. Many surveys currently in progress will provide multi-color imaging of the sky. However, there is a great need for spectroscopic surveys of millions of stars. Twenty years ago, when the idea for the SDSS was born, large scale structures of galaxies had just been discovered. But there was structure on all scales of the largest surveys of the day. There was a pressing need for a larger spectroscopic survey. We are at the same place now in the study of the Milky Way. Spatial substructure and moving groups are found in every spectroscopic sample of spheroid stars that is well constrained in position and stellar type. It is guaranteed that a larger survey will reveal more substructure.

24 Following Helmi et al. 1999 Tidal streams separate in angular momentum – need 3D position and velocity through space. Stars within 1 kpc of the Sun, with Hipparcos proper motions

25 GAIA Astrometric Satellite Magnitude limit: 20 1 billion Galactic stars Astrometry and radial velocities 2011-2020 Will only get radial velocities for stars brighter than 17 th magnitude! With LAMOST, radial velocities can be obtained for the most interesting magnitude range of 17 { "@context": "", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "", "name": "GAIA Astrometric Satellite Magnitude limit: 20 1 billion Galactic stars Astrometry and radial velocities 2011-2020 Will only get radial velocities for stars brighter than 17 th magnitude.", "description": "With LAMOST, radial velocities can be obtained for the most interesting magnitude range of 17

26 4 meter telescope 4000 fiber spectrograph Operations in 2009/2010 Xinglong Observing Station, 3hr north of Beijing 2

27 The Promise of LAMOST 4000 fibers, 4 meter telescope, first light expected December 8, 2008. R=1000/2000, maybe 5000/10,000 gratings in the future. Two million spectra per year. Because I believe that LAMOST has the best potential for unraveling the formation history and dark matter potential of the Milky Way galaxy, I will travel 12 time zones 8 times in two years, have committed my sabbatical this year to LAMOST survey planning and design, and started learning Chinese. LAMOST will soon be the most powerful spectroscopic telescope in the world.

28 The Challenge of LAMOST LAMOST has strong constraints in declination, angle from the meridian, spacing of the fibers, and weather.

29 Planning LAMOST My biggest surprise from the LAMOST project has been the relatively small number of Chinese astronomers that are actively involved in designing, planning, and building this survey. Successful surveys to not just happen. They are built by strong collaborations between scientists with big dreams, technical people with creative solutions, and management who keeps making sure the most important thing is getting done. The LAMOST project critically needs the involvement and ideas of scientists NOW, and especially after first light and commissioning. And the Chinese astronomy community will benefit enormously from a successful LAMOST project, that can put Chinese astronomy at the forefront of astronomical research. But the telescope cannot be all things to all astronomers. In planning the survey, the unique capabilities of LAMOST should be emphasized. The primary science drivers (key projects) should not be compromised. Get the best science from every fiber, every night.

30 How to build a successful survey (1)Make a grand plan. To sell the project, you probably need a “most important” project, but the best science will be the things you never expected to find. If the quality and quantity of the data are unprecedented, there will be surprises. Make the plan ambitious. (2)Pay scientists to build the hardware software. It is a lot of work to build a survey, and the scientists who do the work need to be treated well, and not worry about their next paycheck. Their contributions are every bit as important as those that will be contributed by the scientists that use the data. How will these scientists will be rewarded for good work? When data are available, they will need some time to do analysis, too. It is important to combine a manager who is focused on making sure the task with the longest lead time is getting done with an optimistic and ambitious scientist who wants as much data as he can get, of the highest possible quality. (3)Include other scientists in planning and data quality testing. Scientists can and will volunteer their time to make sure you observe the objects they are interested in, and to make sure they are of sufficient quality. You will need many eyes and minds, and many perspectives, to get this part right. (4)Make the data easy to find and use. The people who created the data understand it, but a large portion of the science impact will come from other peripheral scientists who do not know your detailed file formats. You will need these results to point to when you ask for more money, which you will need. (5)Foster strong internal collaborations, and make the data public in the end. The big science results should come from scientists inside your collaboration. This cannot be accomplished by assigning the result to a single person or group – people need to select themselves by doing (not planning to do) the analyses. Everyone will benefit if people feel like they are part of a collaboration and can share their preliminary results internally to make progress more quickly. But smaller projects you have never thought of will be done by outside scientists if you make the data available, and your profile in the scientific community will be much, much higher if the data is public – though you could wait a couple of years after the data is taken so collaborators have time to use the data and verify the quality. (6)Publicize accomplishments. And always make sure there are great accomplishments to point to, because if you are successful, you will always need more operating money.

31 Doing Science with Survey Data (1)Think very hard about what you would like to learn from the data, and how the data should be taken to make this possible. Plan survey operations well. (2)Once the data is available, science and calibration should be done at the same time. Do not wait until the data is exquisitely calibrated to ask what the data is telling you about the Universe. (3)Expect the unexpected.

32 Overview (1) The Milky Way spheroid (a) tidal debris (b) dwarf galaxies and globular clusters (c) global properties of spheroid stars (2) The Virgo Overdensity and the Big Toe of Hercules (3) Open problems and the need for a larger spectroscopic survey Milky Way stars (RAVE, SEGUE II, LAMOST, WFMOS) (4) The promise and challenges of LAMOST

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