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OCLC Online Computer Library Center Microfilmed Newspapers: Selection for Digitization Success ALA June 25, 2006 OCLC Preservation Service Centers.

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Presentation on theme: "OCLC Online Computer Library Center Microfilmed Newspapers: Selection for Digitization Success ALA June 25, 2006 OCLC Preservation Service Centers."— Presentation transcript:

1 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Microfilmed Newspapers: Selection for Digitization Success ALA June 25, 2006 OCLC Preservation Service Centers

2 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Microfilmed Newspapers: Selection for Digitization Success Kelly Barrall OCLC Brenda Bailey-Hainer Colorado State Library Henry Snyder California Newspaper Project ALA June 25, 2006

3 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Microfilmed Newspapers: Selection for Digitization Success Kelly Barrall, Manager Quality Assurance Joan DaShiell Sr. Digital Project Manager OCLC Preservation Service Centers ALA June 25, 2006

4 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Selecting Microfilm for a Digital Imaging Project  Microfilm Format  Film Generation  Determining Film Base & Polarity  Evaluating Technical Criteria  Microfilm To Digital – Tips For Success!

5 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Selecting Microfilm for a Digital Imaging Project 1 ST Step  Determine format of microfilm available

6 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Microfilm Format Determination 35 mm  Preservation microfilm  Larger frames/smaller reduction  Negative or positive  Acetate ?  Diazo/Vesicular  16mm/105mm

7 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Microfilmed Newspapers: Selection for Digitization Success 2nd step  Determine generation of microfilm

8 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Microfilm Generation Determination Archival Master  Camera film  1st generation  Negative  Acetate ?

9 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Microfilm Generation Determination Print Master  Duplicate copy  2nd generation  Negative  Acetate ?

10 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Microfilm Generation Determination Service Copy  Duplicate copy  3rd generation  Positive  Heavily used  Acetate ?

11 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Microfilmed Newspapers: Selection for Digitization Success 3rd step  Determine base and polarity of microfilm

12 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Acetate or Polyester Base? What’s better for digitization? Microfilm Base Determination

13 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Acetate  Deteriorating  Warped  Brittle  Curled Microfilm Base Determination  Dirty  Scratched  Unstable  Easy to tear

14 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Steps to determine if your film is acetate Hold a wound reel of film up to the light: If opaque (light will not pass through it) the film is most likely acetate Unwind several inches of film: acetate film tends to curl across the width of the film Acetic Acid is vinegar. Acetate film that is deteriorating most likely will have a vinegar odor present. VIEWCURLSMELL

15 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Polyester  Preservation  Stable  Durable Microfilm Base Determination

16 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Negative or Positive Polarity? What’s better for digitization? Microfilm Polarity Determination

17 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Positive  Usually 3rd generation  Lower resolution  More scratched Microfilm Format Determination

18 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Line that separates columns Heavy scratches Example: Heavily scratched positive microfilm

19 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Negative  Usually less noise  Better contrast for text and optical character recognition (OCR) Microfilm Format Determination

20 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Example: digitized from negative microfilm

21 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Microfilmed Newspapers: Selection for Digitization Success 4th step  Evaluate technical criteria

22 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Microfilm Technical criteria Reduction ratio  Newspapers filmed at 20:1 or lower are optimal  Newspapers filmed at a higher resolution could contain small text that is not legible

23 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Microfilm Technical Criteria Resolution  Focus achieved at the time of capture, measured with a 100X microscope  Poor resolution = fuzzy text = poor OCR

24 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Microfilm Technical Criteria Density Range  Film created to meet preservation guidelines  Film too light or too dark = poor OCR  Film with uneven lighting = poor OCR

25 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Example: Uneven lighting – lost text Lost text

26 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Review Steps  Microfilm Format— 35mm  Microfilm Generation— archival, print master, service copy  Microfilm Base & Polarity— acetate vs. polyester; negative vs. positive  Microfilm Technical Criteria— reduction, resolution & density

27 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Tips for a successful microfilm to digital project Know your microfilm  Quantity  Quality  Contents

28 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Tips for a successful microfilm to digital project Quantity  Frame count = 1up/2up  Targets  ISE intentional second exposures  Duplicates

29 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Tips for a successful microfilm to digital project Quality  Poor original  Poor filming  Poor condition of the film

30 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Tips for a successful microfilm to digital project Contents  Newspaper format  Size of the paper, including supplements and full page spreads  Was it filmed bound?  Title changes, should it be treated as one?

31 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Review tips for success!  Quantity – how many images do you really have  Quality – poor quality film = poor quality images  Contents – bound newspapers and title changes

32 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Microfilmed Newspapers: Selection for Digitization Success Microfilm to digital

33 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Digitization and imaging options  Duplicate to polyester  Image enhancement  Dynamic threshold adjustment

34 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Questions? Kelly Barrall/Joan DaShiell


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