Presentation on theme: "MASCULINE OR FEMININE OR BOTH"— Presentation transcript:
1MASCULINE OR FEMININE OR BOTH Presentation by: Alexandra SansostiAP Psychology period 5/6
2BackgroundMasculinity or femininity is use to describe a person’s gender and gender identity.The sex of an individual is biologically determined, but the traits they possess may incorporate both male and female characteristicsEarly gender studies concluded that gender should be studied on a one- dimensional scale with masculinity one one end and femininity on the other
3Background Anne Constantinople (1973) Best way to measure masculinity or femininity is with a two-dimension scale that measures masculine and feminine traits at the same timeMore masculine males and more feminine females are psychologically healthier
4Background Sandra Bem (Stanford University) born in Pittsburgh, PennsylvaniaMore balanced people who can embrace both their masculinity and femininity are healthier and happierEstablished way to measure gender on a two- dimensional scaleAndrogynous- individuals who embrace both masculine and feminine characteristics.The study was based on the theories and processes Bem used to assess gender: the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI)
5Theoretical Propositions Develop a scale that was actually two separate scales: one to measure masculinity; the other femininityHer scale was based on perceived traits rather than observed traitsThe score of Bem’s androgynous test resulted from finding the difference between the feminine and masculine scores
6The Scale List of characteristics/ traits Each characteristic could be rated on a scale of one to seven
7Masculinity score (column 1) greater than 4.9Masculinity score(column 1)less than 4.9Femininity score(column 2)AndrogynousFemale sex-typedMale sex-typedUndifferentiated
8Bem’s Method Item Selection: List of “masculine” and “feminine” attributes from her perspective and asked 100 Stanford undergraduates to also rate the characteristics.from those that were rated Bem chose the top 20 for both masculinity and femininityShe also chose some characteristics that were neither considered male nor female(gender neutral)The final list was 60 items- both masculine and feminine traits were intermixed
9Scoring KeyEach item is rated 1-7 (1 being almost never true; 7 being almost always true)Participants then receive three scores: a masculinity score, a femininity score, and an androgyny score
10Scoring Key (cont’d)The masculinity and femininity scores are calculated as follows:All of the scores for the masculinity/femininity items are added together and divided by 20 to get the averageBem determined the androgyny score by subtracting the masculine score from the feminine scoreThe androgyny score could range from +6 to -6Androgyny scores closest to zero represent the most androgyny
11ResultsReliability:Internal consistency was very high- 20 masculine items/ 20 feminine items were measuring only one traitBem re-administered the test to about 60 of the original participants a month after the first testing and the scores correlated very highly from both tests.
12ResultsValidity:Bem wanted to test to be sure that masculinity and femininity were being measured as different things.She did so by creating a correlation of both the masculine and feminine scales- this clearly proved the scales were unrelated
13ResultsTo verify that masculine and feminine characteristics were the factors being tested, Bem analyzed the scores for men and women separatelyThe result that men scored a higher masculinity and women scored a higher femininity was statistically significant
14ResultsBem found that a large number of the participants were androgynous.35% of Males and 29% of females were determined to be androgynous
15Social EffectsIn general, since the beginning of the psychological studies on gender, cultures have become more accepting of androgynous individuals and career pathsMany more women are holding professional positions traditionally reserved for men, and many men are staying at home and raising children.Gender discrimination and expectation is still a major problem in modern society; men are still expected to be very assertive and women are presumably more emotional and sensitiveThe importance of Bem’s research was that it cultivated further research in gender studies
16Conclusions/ Subsequent Research Androgynous individuals seem to be more readily adjusted to diverse scenarios and have a higher self-esteemAlso it has been suggested that androgynous individuals have more successful heterosexual relationships because they more easily understand the other personRecent research has even suggested that androgynous individuals are happier and healthier, psychologically.
17Conclusions/ Subsequent Research Researchers have argued that androgyny in Bem’s scale suggests more masculinity than an even distribution of masculinity and femininity.Because masculine traits are often seen as more desirable and feminine traits less desirable by society, people with more masculine traits may be seen as androgynous.
18Conclusions/ Subsequent Research This idea has led researchers to modify the scale to four dimensions: Desireable feminine traits. undesirable feminine traits, desireable masculine traits, and undesirable masculine traitsThis new modification led to many more potential test results
19Conclusions/ Subsequent Research Bem has continued her research in the field in addition to her development of the BSRIA study in the late 1990s was conducted to determine whether or not the traits Bem has coined as “masculine” or “feminine” were still thought to be so by modern society.only two of the 60 traits were found to be outdated- “Childlike” and “loyal”- both were feminine on the BSRI, but were found to be androgynous in the study.
20Conclusions/ Subsequent Research The previously noted study was conducted at a Southern US universityWhen another study was done at Northeastern US university, the results were drastically different:women said that only 1 of 20 “masculine” traits were more desirable for males; 2 of 20 feminine items were more desirable for womenMen said that only 13 of 20 “masculine” traits were more desirable for men;7 of 20 feminine items were more desirable for women