Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 13: Glacial Processes, Patterns and Associated Landforms Glaciation Earth once covered with glaciers Last glaciation ended around 10,000 years.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13: Glacial Processes, Patterns and Associated Landforms Glaciation Earth once covered with glaciers Last glaciation ended around 10,000 years."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 13: Glacial Processes, Patterns and Associated Landforms Glaciation Earth once covered with glaciers Last glaciation ended around 10,000 years ago

2 Chapter 13: Glacial Processes, Patterns and Associated Landforms Glaciers Rivers of ice that move slowly Move downslope under the influence of gravity and the pressure of own weight Form where rate of accumulation of snow and ice is greater than rate of melting Largest reservoir of fresh water on Earth

3 Chapter 13: Glacial Processes, Patterns and Associated Landforms Types of glaciers 1.Valley glaciers 1.Valley glaciers: form in mountainous locations and move down valleys 2.Continental ice sheets/glaciers 2.Continental ice sheets/glaciers: enormous areas of glacial ice and snow

4 Chapter 13: Glacial Processes, Patterns and Associated Landforms Causes of an ice age Change in the Earth’s orbit around the sun Change in the angle of the Earth’s axis

5

6

7 Chapter 13: Glacial Processes, Patterns and Associated Landforms Processes of glacial erosion Glaciers erode the landscape they travel over in two ways: 1.Plucking 2.Abrasion

8 Chapter 13: Glacial Processes, Patterns and Associated Landforms 1.Plucking Bottom of glaciers scrape along valley floors – creates friction causing melting around the base of the glacier Meltwater refreezes Freezes around the rocks on the valley floor and these become part of the glacier Glacier moves Newly trapped rock is plucked out of the valley floor New material is then used in process of abrasion

9 Chapter 13: Glacial Processes, Patterns and Associated Landforms 2.Abrasion bedrock beneath the glacier is eroded by the debris/material embedded in the sides and bottom of the glacier ‘Sandpaper effect’ – scrapes the rock over which it is travelling and leaves scratches or grooves in the rock Striations – show the direction of the ice flow

10

11 Chapter 13: Glacial Processes, Patterns and Associated Landforms Factors affecting the rate of glacial erosion Thickness of ice Topography Geology Gradient Accumulation and ablation

12

13 Chapter 13: Glacial Processes, Patterns and Associated Landforms Landforms of glacial erosion (Features of erosion) 1.Cirque Birthplace of a glacier Three steep sides Also called a corrie or coom 2.Arête Narrow ridge Formed when two cirques formed side-by- side or back-to-back

14 Chapter 13: Glacial Processes, Patterns and Associated Landforms Landforms of glacial erosion (continued) Pyramidal peak 3.Pyramidal peak Peak at top of mountain three or more cirques are eroded back- to-back around the sides of a mountain…leaving a peak

15 Chapter 13: Glacial Processes, Patterns and Associated Landforms Landforms of glacial erosion (continued) 4.U-shaped valley Glacier moves through this valley, changing the shape from a V-shape to a U-shape Valleys have steep sides and flat floors Glacier cuts off interlocking spurs of the V- shaped valley leaving truncated spurs

16 Chapter 13: Glacial Processes, Patterns and Associated Landforms Landforms of glacial erosion (continued).Ribbon lakes 5.Ribbon lakes Long, narrow lakes found in glaciated U- shaped valleys meltwater and rainwater accumulates forming a ribbon lake 6.Fjords Drowned U-shaped valleys Result of melting glaciers

17

18 Ribbon lake Cirque/lake U-shaped valley Hanging valley Pyramidal peak Arete

19

20 Chapter 13: Glacial Processes, Patterns and Associated Landforms Glacial deposition Dropping or laying down of sediment that was once transported by a glacier Occurs in lowland areas Deposited material is called glacial drift Material deposited directly by ice is called till or boulder clay Material deposited by glacial meltwater is known as fluvio-glacial deposits

21 Chapter 13: Glacial Processes, Patterns and Associated Landforms Examples of landforms of glacial deposition Moraines Drumlins Erratics

22 Chapter 13: Glacial Processes, Patterns and Associated Landforms Examples of landforms of fluvio-glacial deposition Eskers Outwash plains Kames and kettleholes

23 Chapter 13: Glacial Processes, Patterns and Associated Landforms Landforms of glacial deposition 1.Moraine Deposited debris Various sizes ranging from large boulders to fine rock flour Material may be angular or rounded in shape

24 Chapter 13: Glacial Processes, Patterns and Associated Landforms Five types of moraine I.Lateral moraine II.Medial moraine III.End/terminal moraine IV.Ground moraine V.Englacial moraine

25 Chapter 13: Glacial Processes, Patterns and Associated Landforms Landforms of glacial deposition 2.Drumlins Oval-shaped hills consisting of boulder clay Show direction of glacier movement Occur in swarms or cluster ‘Basket of eggs’ topography ‘Drowned drumlins’ – as the ice melted sea levels rose and the drumlins appear as islands in the sea

26 Chapter 13: Glacial Processes, Patterns and Associated Landforms Landforms of glacial deposition 3.Erratics Material transported by the glacier and are said to be ‘out of place’ when deposited Esker – long winding ridges of stratified sand and gravel that wind its way across lowland areas

27 Chapter 13: Glacial Processes, Patterns and Associated Landforms Landforms of glacial deposition 4.Outwash plains Glaciers melt Release vast amounts of water Spreads outwards beyond the end/terminal moraine Carries large volumes of rock and gravels and sands

28 Chapter 13: Glacial Processes, Patterns and Associated Landforms Landforms of glacial deposition 5.Kames Piles of sediment consisting of gravels and sand Deposited along the front of a retreating glacier

29 Chapter 13: Glacial Processes, Patterns and Associated Landforms Landforms of glacial deposition 6.Kettle holes Blocks of ice separate from the main glacier Buried partly in meltwater sediments Blocks of ice melt leaving depressions or holes Fill with water – form kettle hole lakes

30

31


Download ppt "Chapter 13: Glacial Processes, Patterns and Associated Landforms Glaciation Earth once covered with glaciers Last glaciation ended around 10,000 years."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google