Presentation on theme: "Agricultural Extension Service Policy in Ethiopia"— Presentation transcript:
1Agricultural Extension Service Policy in Ethiopia By:Kidanemariam B. HailuMEP10105Country: EthiopiaInstructor at Aksum UniversityJuly 2011
21. Overview of the Agricultural Sector in Ethiopia • Ethiopian population is about 80 mil, 3rd Populatedfrom Africa.• Majority (84%) of the population live in the rural areas• The economy is predominantly agrarian• Agriculture accounts for about46% of GDP85% of Employment90 % of Export Earning,Since 2004/5 the average growth rate of agr. has been about 8% per yearOf the total agral value added: crop, livestock and forestry, respectively, contribute 60%, 27% and 13%.
3But, still characterized by low productivity and has been unable to produce sufficient quantities to feed the population (Tewodaj et al., 2009).Factors that contribute to the low level of productivitylow level of adoption of modern agricultural inputsuse of traditional tools and farming practicesland degradation and frequent droughtTotally rain-fed agriculture
42. Agricultural Extension Service in Ethiopia Extension service started in Ethiopia since 1953 and has passed at least five stagesLand grant extension system Imperial RegimeComprehensive Package Programs ( )Minimum Package ProjectsPeasant Agricultural Development Program- Military Regime ( )Participatory Demonstration and Training Extension Systems (PADETES)- Current Regime (since 1995-present)
5Lessons learned from the past extension service absence of participation of the very people for whom they have been designed.lack of complementary institutional support services such as input supply and credit services.was biased against the livestock subsector.was accessible to farmers located only a few kilometers from both sides of all weather roads.emphasis was given to few producers, cooperatives and state farms
6Agricultural Extension under the Current Government After coming to power in 1991, the current government adopted Agricultural Development Led Industrialization Strategy (ADLI) in 1994.Within the framework of ADLI, a new extension approach, PADETES has been adopted in 1995.PADETES aimed at (Berhanu, 2006);increasing productivity and production of smallholdersempowering farmers to be active participants in the development processincreasing food self-sufficiency, increasing the supply of raw materials for domestic use and exportenhancing the rehabilitation and conservation of natural resource base, and encouraging farmer organizations.
7The principle of PADETES is that it is agro-ecology based and followed a package approach The program initially started with technology packages for wheat, maize, sorghum and teff in high rainfall areas.Later, it expanded its area coverage and number of technology packages (livestock, high value crops, post harvest technology, and agro-forestry).Components of the Extension packagecrop production packages (cereals, pulses, fruits and vegetables) including crop protection and irrigationlivestock production technologies (feeds, modern beehives, dairy, fattening, animal health, fishery, poultry, apiculture)natural resources management (agro-forestry, soil conservation and water harvesting)
83. Policy Framework and Organization of the Extension Service ADLINational Policy Framework to maintain national food security and improving rural livelihoodsAt Federal level, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MoARD) is responsible forformulating national extension intervention related policies,coordinating interregional extension, andproviding technical advice and training servicesProviding financial supportMoARDBoARDAt the Regional State level, Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Development (BoARD) is responsible forimplementation of the PADETES through its district and local level officesWOARDWoreda (district) level Office of Agriculture and Rural Development (WOARD)KebeleKebele is the smallest administration unit in Ethiopia
9At woreda level, extension activities are handled by a team composed of an extension team leaderan extension and training expertexperts in crop production, livestock production, and natural resource management.
10Drip irrigation Modern beekeeping PADETES is based on demonstrating technologies and training farmers on agricultural technologiesFor this reason, one farmers training center (FTC) is established in each KebeleDrip irrigation Modern beekeepingSample FTC in Tigrai Region (adopted from Molla, 2009)
11The FTCs serve ascenters of extension service and informationplaces where modular training to farmers are givendemonstration of entrepreneurshipTo realize this, three Development Agents (DAs), one each in the areas of crop production, livestock production and natural resource management are placed at each FTC.To deliver knowledge, PADETES makes use of farm visit, farm and home visit, use of model farmers, demonstration of farm technology and demonstration plots and mass media approaches.
124. Analysis of systems Framework and Working Components Participatory Demonstration and Training Extension SystemsAgricultural Technical and Vocational Education and TrainingFarmers Training CentersInstitutional coordination
13Systems/Management and Linkages new actors, policies, technologies, and relationships are affecting the systembut, still the public sector is the single most important playerParticipation of the private sector and NGOs is weak.research-extension linkage increasingMind-sets and Capabilitiesmind-set changes among research and extension staffs and farmersCapacity is a major issue within the extension systemThe DA position suffers from high turnoverDAs and other extension staff have limited skills relating to innovation, networking, social learning, policies, farmer group development, and negotiationuse of DAs for non-extension activities such as credit distribution and repayment collection
14Infrastructure and Resources FTCs should be the focal point for all the actors within the innovation systemHowever, they suffer from lack of modern equipmentsLack of transportation facilitiesThey need monitoring and supportEnabling Environmentpolicies are often formulated and implemented without due regard to farmers’distribution channels and institutions are weaklack of input and output marketslack of inputs or their high prices and late delivery (due to lack of coordination)
15Institutional Environment Various actors and institutions play important role in the extension systemMajor govt ministries include MoARD, Ministry of Trade , Ministry of Industry, Ministry of Capacity Building, Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Health, and Ministry of Transport and CommunicationsRegional, woreda and kebele institutionsOther institutions such as farmers’ cooperatives for input supply or marketing, community-based organizations, NGOs, private firms (such as traders or transporters), and microfinance institutions .Well integration and coordination of these institutions lead to the success of the extension system
165. Effectiveness of PADETES Reached many farmers equitably (35-40% of the farmers in Ethiopia)Increased productivity in some casesAbout 8,489 FTCs established throughout Ethiopia, and about 62,764 DAs have been trained in total, with a reported 45,812 staffed on location.Increased production of grainsIncreased numbers of participating households in extension packagesMany farmers became millionaires under this system (Model farmers).Increased use of fertilizer and improved seedDiversification of farm enterprisesGenerally, Studies (example Dercon et al. 2008) shows poverty level of the participant households decreased.
17Reasons for the encouraging results could be Countrywide enabling environment in which extension operatesStrong foundation of FTCstrain DAs and farmersentrepreneurialism and innovation existAgricultural technical and vocational educationInstitutional coordinationlinked PADETES with credit, cooperative and marketing supportConsistent policy (PADETES) with strong believe of the gov’t that change could only come through PADETES.Considered agro-ecology variance
18Irrigation farmland of Potato, wheat and barley of model farmer in Tigrai, 2009 Modern house of participant household in Tigrai Cross-breed milk cow dev’t package in Tigrai
19Table 1: Trends of production and productivity YearTotal production in tonesArea in hectareproductivity(tones per hectare)% of area covered by improved seedsFertilizer applied in tones% of area covered by fertilizer1994/951.030.6118412627.701995/961.310.7125621731.431996/971.201.8726457932.231997/981.9823588234.471998/992.6838910438.601999/20001.213.6143296638.812000/011.234.2234149337.852001/021.402.992581788.42002/031.02------2003/041.333.6738825140.222004/053.1845496641.79CSA, 2005
20However, the very critical point to be raised here is whether these changes are really sufficient to significantly increase agricultural productivity and production levelsAbout 40% of the total population is still undernourishedEffectiveness of PADETES has been largely measured in terms of the number of farmers participating in the extension program.Number of annual target beneficiaries is compared against accomplishments to evaluate the effectiveness/ performance of the extension package program.Fulfillment of quotas still remained a criterion in DAs performance evaluation.
216. Impact of the Program on Poverty in Tigrai (by Kidu, 2010) ATT= Expenditure of participants minus that of non-participantsTable 2: ATT Estimation Results of Food and Total Expenditures
22Table 3: ATT Estimation Results of household Investment on human capital
23Table 4: ATT Estimation Results of Household Productive assets
247. Problems that Need attention Performance measures are largely input based, not output/outcome basedStill top-down and non-participatory approach dominatesPredominantly supply driven approachLimitations in infrastructure facilities, marketing chain and inputsLimited participation by women farmersDAs use coercion to involve farmers to fulfill quotaDAs are involved in several non-extension activities, including credit distribution and collection of repayments