Presentation on theme: "Stroke Systems of Care: Prehospital and Initial Management of Stroke June 2014 prepared by Karen Ellmers, RN, MS, CCNS OHSU Stroke Program Coordinator."— Presentation transcript:
1Stroke Systems of Care: Prehospital and Initial Management of Stroke June 2014 prepared by Karen Ellmers, RN, MS, CCNS OHSU Stroke Program Coordinator
2Objectives Describe stroke levels of care. Review case study of initial stroke management.Discuss stroke quality improvement measures.
3Acute Stroke Ready Hospital Primary Stroke Center Stroke Levels of CareAcute Stroke Ready HospitalPrimary Stroke CenterComprehensive Stroke CenterHigashida, R., et al. (2013). Stroke 44.
4Typically small facilities serving small cities or rural populations. Acute Stroke ReadyTypically small facilities serving small cities or rural populations.Stroke patient population volume low.Limited staffing & bed availability.
5Receives patient from EMS or other mode: Acute Stroke ReadyReceives patient from EMS or other mode:Initial triage and diagnosisEstablish telemedicine linkAcute stabilizationAcute treatmentTransfer as needed based on level of care needed
6Recommended elements: Acute Stroke ReadyRecommended elements:At least 2 staff members able to be at patient bedside within 15 minutes, 24/7Able to do rapid brain imaging within 45 minutesIV thrombolytic protocol with goal of door to needle within 60 minutesWritten transfer protocolsTelemedicine link within 20 minutesSchwamm, LH (2009). Stroke 40(7):
7Possible performance metrics: Acute Stroke ReadyPossible performance metrics:Stroke severityTime to first brain imagingDoor to needle time for thrombolyticsTime to initiation of anticoagulation reversalTime to initiation of telemedicine linkTime to transfer, when indicatedSchwamm, LH (2009). Stroke 40(7):
11Primary Stroke CenterMostly urban and suburbanTypically 300+ stroke patient admissions per yearSame level of care 24/7/365All attributes of acute stroke ready, plus….
12Primary Stroke Center Collaboration with EMS providers. Access to stroke treatment & destination protocols.Provide support to remote area hospitals.Transfer protocols to primary or comprehensive stroke center, when needed.
15*Patient example from electronic medical record test environment
16Primary Stroke Center Neuroimaging—24/7 basis: Able to obtain brain image within 25 minutes and interpretation within 20 minutes of completion.Advanced imaging:MRI with diffusionVascular imaging (MRA, CTA, carotid doppler)Cardiac imaging (TTE, TEE, or cardiac MRI)
17Primary Stroke Center Laboratory Services: Stroke labs within 45 minutes from order on 24/7 basis.ECG and chest x-ray within 45 minutes from order, when clinically indicated.Outcome and quality improvement activities.Community educational programs.
18Primary Stroke CenterNeurosurgeon available within 2 hours of need identified. Or written transfer plan to facility with this capability.Operating room capability 24/7.
19Primary Stroke Center Stroke Units Does not require specific enclosed unit, but must be a unit where majority of patients are admitted where staff have annual education & specialized experience in caring for the stroke patient.
21Rehabilitation Services: Primary Stroke CenterRehabilitation Services:Speech Language TherapyPhysical TherapyOccupational TherapyAssessment and early initiation of a plan.
22Primary Stroke Center, Metrics Stroke Core MeasuresVolume of Ischemic, TIA, ICH & SAH admitsAcute Stroke workup times:Door to CTDoor to lab resultsDoor to EKG & CXRIV tPA volume, door to needle times
23Must show that you deliver care based on these published guidelines.
24Comprehensive OHSU Certified! Effective March The Joint Commission has officially certified OHSU as aComprehensive Stroke Program. OHSU is the first in the Pacific Northwest to receive this certification.
25Comprehensive Stroke Center Everything we’ve discussed so far, plus……Health care personnel with specific expertise in a number of disciplines, including neurosurgery and vascular neurology.Advanced neuroimaging capabilities, such as MRI and various types of cerebral angiography, 24/7/365, most within 30 minutes of clinical need.Surgical and endovascular techniques, including clipping and coiling of intracranial aneurysm, carotid endarterectomy and stenting, and endovascular treatments for ischemic stroke.Infrastructure and programmatic elements such as a dedicated neuro intensive care unit staffed with neurointensivists.Post hospital care coordination.Extensive data collection and peer review process.Participation in stroke research.
26Comprehensive Stroke Center Increased data collection requirements.Examples:Ischemic stroke% of patients who received IV tPA in ≤ 60 minutes from arrival% who arrive in less than 6 hours of onset who were considered for endovascular tx90 day modified Rankin scoresHemorrhagic strokeInitial severity scores documented (ICH & SAH)Procoagulant reversal times for ICHMedian time from admit to surgical or endovascular tx for aneurysm% of patients who receive nimodipine within 24 hours of admitSerious complication and mortality rates for CEA, aneurysm coiling & clipping, carotid stents, thrombectomies, decompressive cranis, ventriculostomies, EVD’s & transduced lines, cerebral angiograms.Follow-up calls on complex stroke patients within 7 days of discharge.
27Comprehensive Stroke Center Enhances the ability to analyze and optimize how patients move through the system (EMS on through back into community).It allows for more team thinking of how we all work together to provide an efficient & optimal patient experience, rather than just thinking in silos about what occurs in and would work best for my own department.Regular communication among stakeholders through an organized committee/advisory group structure helps to reinforce the team concept, helps to identify common goals, sets clear priorities, and builds positive working relationships.
28Does it make a difference? Stroke Systems of CareDoes it make a difference?Compared to general hospitals, Primary Stroke Centers have:Higher tPA treatment ratesLower death ratesImproved outcomesBeing certified by an independent licensing body increases effectiveness of overall stroke care.The focus is on the entire continuum.Higashida, R., et al. (2013). Stroke 44
29The Power of DataThe Get With the Guidelines-Stroke database allows for analysis of trends and identification of performance improvement projects of our internal performance and ability to benchmark with over 2400 other hospitals.Data can be extracted and shared with direct care providers.A way to show how their efforts impact care in a positive manner.Motivation to improve in areas needing attention.We have over 4500 patients in our database. Our Stroke Advisory group selects & monitors the annual performance improvement (PI) projects.PI efforts are coordinated by the Clinical Nurse Specialist, but all members of the team are involved in developing & implementing systems solutions.Data is reported up through organizational chain, plus to the Joint Commission.
30Power of Data Stroke Core Measures STK-1 Stroke Core Measures STK-1VTE Prophylaxis initiated by hospital day 2 STK-2Discharged on Antithrombotics STK-3Anticoagulation for Afib STK-4% who arrive in ED w/in 120 minutes of onset who received tPA w/in 3 hours of onset STK-5Antithrombotics started by hospital day 2 STK-6LDL> 100 discharged on a statin STK-8Patient/family stroke education provided STK-10Assessed for rehab needs PSC-7Bedside swallow screen prior to any PO PSC-9Tobacco cessation provided during hospital stay
36She suddenly falls behind the counter Case StudyMrs. Smith a 60 yr old is working alone at the dry cleaning shop she owns with her husband, who had just left to get lunch.She suddenly falls behind the counterThere is vomiting and silence…………
37Case StudyTwo customers come into the shop and find Mrs. Smith laying face down in vomit, on floor unable to move with out any one else around.They called 911.
38Time 911 Call Received 14:47.17 Time EMS Dispatched 14:47: 57 Case StudyTime 911 Call Received 14:47.17Time EMS Dispatched :47: 57Time EMS Enroute :48:17Time EMS at Pt Side :55Just over half of all stroke patients use EMS access to health care; those who utilize EMS comprise the majority of patients presenting in the 3- 4 ½ hour TPA window.• EMS use strongly associated with :1. shorter time periods from symptom onset to hospital arrival2. decreased time to initial physician examination, initial CT imaging, and neurological evaluation
39Screening for stroke / Scores compared Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke ScaleLA stroke screenFacial droopYesArm driftGripNASpeechPrescreening questions (seizures, glucose, age > 45, new onset symptoms 24hrs), ambulatory at baselineNo
40Stroke SymptomsSudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm, or leg (especially unilateral).Sudden confusion, trouble speaking or understanding speech.Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes.Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination.Sudden severe headache with no known cause.
41Case Study EMS to patient at 14:55: Pt. is awake and talking Glucose = 135Pt had no signs of trauma but states she does not recall events surrounding the fall so cervical spine was immobilized.LA Stroke Screen Positive for acute stroke.Pt. stated last time she remembers being normal was at approximately 1330 when she finished her lunchCode 3 to HospitalAlerted Hospital of stroke patient
42Arrival to Emergency Department Case StudyArrival to Emergency DepartmentOrders placed in advance of patient arrivalEMS pulls into ED ambulance bay at 15:20Triaged EMERGENT & placed in a resus room0-10 MINUTES Rapid ED eval MD/RN/Tech/Social WorkerAcute Stroke Team Activation 15:28Stroke Neurologist arrived in ED 15:32Door to Head CT :30 = 10 minutesDoor to Labs resulted minutes (some via POC)EKG / Chest xray <23 minutes
43Case Study Physician H&P: 60 yo female h/o DM2, HTN, A Fib not on coumadin. Who presents w L hemiplegia, R gaze and L neglect.Was found down at work.Last known normal 1330.NKA; Meds: Asa, Metormin, PravastatinVital signs on arrival BP 204/88 pulse 77, R 18 Temp 36.3Sp % weight 61.2 kgPt. denies any head traumas, no h/o systemic bleeds, no recent MI, no h/o strokes or ICH/SAH, no recent surgeriesNIHSS 19
45What the NIHSS score means in general terms: Case StudyMrs. Smith’s NIHSS was 19What the NIHSS score means in general terms:NIHSS = mild strokeNIHSS = moderate strokeNIHSS > 18 = large strokeWhat is the NIHSS and Why Do We Need It?NIHSS is a validated tool that allows clinicians to:Objectively quantify the clinical exam (both for determination of the use of tPA and in the acute phase)Determine if the patients’ neurological status is improving or deteriorating;Provide standardization in assessment; (from one person to the next – same thorough exam performed)Communicate patient status: (nurses and MDS talking the same language)
46Case Study tPA Inclusion/Exclusion for onset < 3 hours Inclusion criteriaDiagnosis of ischemic stroke causing measurable neuro deficit> 18 yoExclusion criteriaUnknown onset timeImaging evidence of hemorrhage or strokeprior stroke or head trauma within 3 monthsHistory of previous ICHIntracranial neoplasm, AVM or aneurysmRecent intracranial/intraspinal surgeryArterial puncture are non-compressible site within previous 7daysActive internal bleedingPlatelets < 100,000Current anti-coagulant use with INR > 1.7Glucose < 50BP > 185 /110 despite aggressive treatment to lower BPRelative exclusionsRapidly improving or minor symptomsPregnancySeizure at onsetMajor surgery or serious trauma in previous 14 daysRecent GI/GU hemorrhage in previous 21 daysMyocardial infarction in previous 3 monthsSame criteria as < 3h, plus> 80 yoSevere stroke (NIHSS >25)Oral anti-coagulation, regardless of INRHistory of diabetesHistory of prior stroke
47Stroke Team Neurologist note Case StudyStroke Team Neurologist noteS/S consistent with R MCA, possibly due to atrial fibrillation (carotids not imaged yet).Given the high NIHSS 19, it is likely that she has large vessel occlusion.The patient meets criteria for tPA.Potential benefits and risks, including bleeding and death discussed with the patient who wishes to proceed.Pt consented for IV tPA and thrombectomy with stentriever.1608 IR team activated.1610 tPA started in ED.Stroke Team Neurologist
48Case StudytPA 1610, 50 min after ED arrival and 2 hrs 40 min after last known well.VS monitoring q5 min. in ED:1555, BP 145/1051600, BP 162/78IV tPA –Total dose 0.9 mg/kg, max. 90mg:Mrs. Smith’s weight = 61.2 kg5.5 mg bolus over 1 minute49.5 mg over 1 hour via IV pumpTotal 55 mg
49Case Study1638 pt. left ED to the Neurointerventional Angio suite, accompanied by Rapid Response Nurse.1728 stentriever obtained TICI 2a flow at 3 hrs 58 min after last known well.Pt was admitted to Neuro Intensive Care Unit at
50Case Study Post tPA monitoring Neuro assessment & vital signs are to be monitored and documented every 15 minutes for 2 hours (starting from time bolus is given).Then every 30 minutes for next 6 hours.And hourly for next 16 hours.Observe for bleeding from puncture sites, urine, stool.Watch for signs/symptoms of intracerebral hemorrhage.
51Post tPA monitoring: Can I transfer while infusing? Case StudyPost tPA monitoring: Can I transfer while infusing?The literature supports the initiation of IV tPA, using telemedicine support as needed, and transfer to regional stroke centers for further treatment, when indicated.Data suggests that drip & ship complication rates are comparable to non-drip & ship.It is considered a safe & effective method that can increase treatment rates in eligible patients and shorten time to treatment.Risk vs. benefit needs to be considered.
52Case Study No hemorrhagic transformation at 24 hours. Admitted to Neurosciences ICU, then Neurosciences Acute Care Unit.Received Speech Therapy, Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, and Dietician assessments & treatments starting from day 1.Discharged to a skilled nursing facility on day 14.Progressed to Inpatient Rehabilitation, then home, where she continues outpatient therapy.
53Stroke risk reduction Case Study Written information on recommendations passed on to PCP.Started on anti-coagulation for afib.Adjusted blood pressure meds.Provided stroke education to family.Written information about stroke, plus warning signs/symptoms to call 911:Teachable moment with family
54Truly an interdisciplinary effort! EMSEmergency DepartmentNeurologyNeurosurgeryInterventional NeuroradiologyAnesthesiologyIntensivistsTelemedicineNursingManagersEducatorsStaff nursesRadiologyLaboratory ServicesNutrition ServicesRehabilitation ServicesPharmacy ServicesCare ManagementSocial WorkQuality ImprovementStroke Program CoordinatorAdministration
55Stroke Systems of CareFrom Higashida, R., et al. (2013). Stroke 44
56Stroke Systems of Care Oregon Senate Bill 375 passed in April 2013. Establishes a Stroke Care Committee in the Oregon Health Authority.To make recommendations for achieving continuous improvement in the quality of stroke care.Encourages sharing of information and metrics.First meeting took place May 2014.13 certified PSC, 2 certified CSC, the rest are acute stroke ready, or approaching that.It is estimated that 80-90% of the population has access to stroke neurologist evaluation via telemedicine.
57Critical Success Factors The real goal is to try to prevent stroke and to return as many people as possible to their highest functional status.
59Q&AWhat are three recommended attributes of an acute stroke ready hospital?a. Urban, large hospital, telemedicine network.b. Inpatient rehabilitation unit, tPA ready, MRI capability.c. Provides initial triage & acute stabilization, tPA ready, written transfer plans.
60What are three recommended attributes of a Primary Stroke Center? Q&AWhat are three recommended attributes of a Primary Stroke Center?a. Hemorrhagic stroke capable, Neuro ICU, written transfer plans.b. Advanced neuro imaging, neurosurgeon available within 2 hours, full array of Rehabilitation Services.c. Endovascular capability, inpatient rehabilitation unit, tPA ready.
61What are three requirements for a JC certified CSC? Q&AWhat are three requirements for a JC certified CSC?Surgical & endovascular capabilities, dedicated Neurosciences ICU, post hospital care coordination.Written transfer plans, tPA ready, CT capability.Initial triage & acute stabilization, ischemic strokes only, Rehabilitation Services.
62BibliographyAcker, JE, Pancioli, AM, Crocco, TJ, et al. (2007). Implementation strategies for emergency medical services within stroke systems of care: A policy statement from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Expert Panel on Emergency Medical Services Systems and Stroke Council. Stroke, 38:Alberts, M.J., et al. (2005). Recommendations for Comprehensive Stroke Centers. Stroke, 36:Connolly, E.S., et al. (2012). Guidelines for the Management of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals from the AHA/ASA. Stroke, 43:Higashida, R., et al. (2013). Interactions Within Stroke Systems of Care: A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke, 44:Jauch, E.C., et al. (2013). Guidelines for the Early Management of Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals from the AHA/ASA. Stroke, 44:Martin-Schild, S, Morales, MM, Khaja, AM, et al. Is the drip and ship approach to delivering thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke safe? J EM Med 2011; 41(2),Morgenstern, L.B., et al. (2010). Guidelines for the Management of Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Guidelines for Healthcare Professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke, 41, ppPervez, MA, Silva, G, Masrur, S, et al. Remote supervision of IV-tPA for acute ischemic stroke by telemedicine or telephone before transfer to a regional stroke center is feasible and safe. Stroke 2010; 41:e18-e24.Schwamm, L.H., et al. (2009). Recommendations for the Implementation of Telemedicine Within Stroke Systems of Care: A Policy Statement from the AHA. Stroke, 40:Summers, D., et al. (2009). Comprehensive Overview of Nursing and Interdisciplinary Care of the Acute Ischemic Stroke Patient: A Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association. Stroke 40, (8), ppWondwossen, GT, Chaudry, SA, Hassan AE, et al. Drip and ship thrombolytic treatment paradigm among acute ischemic stroke patients in the United States. Stroke 2012; 43:Xian, Y., et al. (2011). Association Between Stroke Center Hospitalization for Acute Ischemic Stroke and Mortality. JAMA, 305(4):