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WATER SAVING AND YIELD ENHANCING TECHNOLOGIES: How far can they contribute to water productivity enhancement in Indian Agriculture? M. Dinesh Kumar, Madar.

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Presentation on theme: "WATER SAVING AND YIELD ENHANCING TECHNOLOGIES: How far can they contribute to water productivity enhancement in Indian Agriculture? M. Dinesh Kumar, Madar."— Presentation transcript:

1 WATER SAVING AND YIELD ENHANCING TECHNOLOGIES: How far can they contribute to water productivity enhancement in Indian Agriculture? M. Dinesh Kumar, Madar Samad, Upali Amarasinghe and O. P. Singh

2 Introduction The spread of water-saving irrigation technologies is very low in IndiaThe spread of water-saving irrigation technologies is very low in India The objectives:The objectives: –to analyze the potential of water saving technologies in terms of spread and in terms of enhancement in water productivity –To analyze the institutional and policy options The Study to bank on knowledge and expertise on this technologies and their impacts, the extensive literature availableThe Study to bank on knowledge and expertise on this technologies and their impacts, the extensive literature available

3 Nature of Water Saving for Different Crops under Different Types of Efficient Irrigation Technologies Table 1: Nature of Water Saving for Different Crops under Different Types of Efficient Irrigation Technologies Sr. No Name of Water-Saving and Yield Enhancing Irrigation Technology Names of crops for which the technology can be used ideally Nature of Saving in Applied Water 1Pressurized drip systems (inline and on- line drippers, drip taps) All fruit crops; cotton; castor; fennel; maize; coconut; aracnut; chilly; cauliflower; cabbage; ladies finger; tomatoes; brinjal; gourds; mulberry; sugarcane; water melon; flowers 1. Reduces non-beneficial evaporation (E) from the area not covered by canopy 2. Reduces deep percolation 3. Water saving also comes from reduction in evaporation from fallow after harvest 4. Extent of water saving higher during initial stages of plant growth 5. Yield growth significant 2Overhead sprinklers (including sprinkler guns) Wheat; pearl millet; sorghum; cumin; mustard; cow pea; chick pea 1.Reduces the losses in conveyance 2. Improves the distribution efficiency slightly 3. Reduces deep percolation 3. Yield growth marginal 3Micro sprinklersPotato; ground nut; alfalfa;1. Reduces the seepage and evaporation losses in conveyance through open channels. 2. Reduces deep percolation over furrow irrigation and small border irrigation 3. Yield growth significant 4Plastic mulchingPotato; ground nut; cotton; castor; fennel; brinjal; chilly; cauliflower; cabbage; ladies finger; flowers 1. Completes checks the evaporation component of ET 2. Stops non-beneficial evaporation (E) 3. Extent of water saving higher over drip irrigation 4. Faster germination and significant yield growth 5Green housesAll vegetables, high valued fruits such as strawberry; and exotic flowers 1. Controls the ambient temperature and humidity, 2. checks the wind, thereby reducing transpirative demand of plant. 3. The water-saving is highest as compared to other technologies 4. Substantial yield growth 6Micro tube dripsAll horticultural crops1.Reduces non-beneficial evaporation 2. Distribution uniformity is poor and depends on number of micro tubes on a lateral

4 Current Contribution of Water Saving Technologies Present spread of water-saving irrigation technologies in Indian agriculturePresent spread of water-saving irrigation technologies in Indian agriculture –9.18 lac ha under sprinklers –2.6 under drip systems –Rate of adoption of MI system during Rate of adoption of MI system during Rate of adoption of MI system during Contribution of water-saving technologies in Indian river basinsContribution of water-saving technologies in Indian river basins –Physical impact of WSTs on Water Demand Drivers Area and cropping systemsArea and cropping systems EfficiencyEfficiencyEfficiency Water Saving and Water ProductivityWater Saving and Water ProductivityWater Saving and Water ProductivityWater Saving and Water Productivity Return flowsReturn flows Aggregate water consumption from the system in crop productionAggregate water consumption from the system in crop production –Economic impacts Economic impactsEconomic impacts

5 Potential Future Improvements in Water Productivity through WSTs… Opportunities and Constraints in Adoption of Water- Saving Irrigation TechnologiesOpportunities and Constraints in Adoption of Water- Saving Irrigation Technologies –Physical Constraints in Adopting in Water Saving Technologies –Physical Opportunities for Creating “Wet Water” –Socioeconomic and Institutional Constraints – Socioeconomic and Institutional Opportunities for Water Saving Technologies Crops Conducive to Water-Saving TechnologiesCrops Conducive to Water-Saving TechnologiesCrops Conducive to Water-Saving TechnologiesCrops Conducive to Water-Saving Technologies Water-scarce River Basins that can benefit from WSTsWater-scarce River Basins that can benefit from WSTs Area that can be brought under Water-Saving Irrigation TechnologiesArea that can be brought under Water-Saving Irrigation TechnologiesArea that can be brought under Water-Saving Irrigation TechnologiesArea that can be brought under Water-Saving Irrigation Technologies

6 Potential improvements… Basins Conducive to Water-Saving Irrigation Technologies from adoption perspectiveBasins Conducive to Water-Saving Irrigation Technologies from adoption perspective –West flowing rivers north of Tapi in Gujarat and Rajasthan –Sabarmati, Banas, Narmada –East flowing rivers of Peninsular India –Mahanadi –Parts of Indus basin Quantification of Actual System-Level Water-use and Water-saving ImpactsQuantification of Actual System-Level Water-use and Water-saving ImpactsQuantification of Actual System-Level Water-use and Water-saving ImpactsQuantification of Actual System-Level Water-use and Water-saving Impacts

7 Enabling environment for spreading water saving technologies Analysis of Existing Water & Energy PoliciesAnalysis of Existing Water & Energy Policies –Crop area based pricing of surface water for irrigation; –Un-scientific water delivery schedules followed in irrigation systems; –Flat rate system of pricing of electricity or free electricity followed by many Indian states for farm sector; –Power supply restrictions for farm sector (constraint in expanding area under irrigation)

8 Enabling environment… Institutional and Policy AlternativesInstitutional and Policy Alternatives –Pro rata pricing of electricity –Metering & cash incentives –High quality power –Reforms in the administration of subsidy What do we do in Canal Command Areas?What do we do in Canal Command Areas? –Delivery system design (advanced stage of system design like in Israel) –Efficient pricing –Proper incentive for creating intermediate storages as alternative

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10 Rate of Adoption of MI Systems during Under Various Programmes Rate of Adoption of MI Systems during Under Various Programmes Sr. No. Name of StateArea Under Micro Irrigation Systems in the year Total 1 Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhatisgarh Goa Gujarat Haryana Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh India Total

11 Irrigation Efficiencies under Different Methods of Irrigation Efficiencies under Different Methods of Irrigation Irrigation EfficienciesMethod of Irrigation SurfaceSprinklerDrip Conveyance Efficiency40-50 (canal) (well) Application Efficiency Surface water moisture evaporation Overall efficiency

12 Impact of Drip Irrigation on Applied Water, Yield and Applied Water Productivity in Castor in Manka Plot No. Method of Irrigation Agronomic Practices Plot Size (M 2 ) Plant Distance [R x P] (m) No. of Watering Water Application Rate (mm/ irrigation) Per Sq. Meter Area Water use (m 3 ) Production (Kg) Water Productivity (kg/m 3 ) C - 1 Micro- tubeP M11104 x C - 2 Micro- tubeO M11104 x C - 3 Micro- tube11104 x C - 4 Flooding11104 x PM = Plastic Mulching; OM = Organic Mulching

13 Impact of Drip Irrigation on Applied Water, Yield and Applied Water Productivity in Groundnut (Kumbhasan) Plot No. Method of Irrigation Plot Size (M 2 ) No. of Watering Water Application Rate (mm/ irrigation) Per Sq. Meter Area Water use (m 3 ) Production (Kg) Water Productivity (kg/m 3 ) G - 1 Inline Drip G - 2 Micro- tube G - 3Furrows

14 Impact of Drip Irrigation on Applied Water, Yield and Applied Water Productivity in Potato (Manka) Impact of Drip Irrigation on Applied Water, Yield and Applied Water Productivity in Potato (Manka) Plot No.Method of Irrigation Plot Size (M 2 ) WST (cm) No. of Watering Water Application Rate (mm/ irrigation) Per Sq. Meter Area Water use (m 3 ) Production (Kg) Water Productivity (kg/m 3 ) P - 1Inline drip x P - 2Easy drip x P - 3 Micro-tube drip x P - 4 Micro- Sprinkler x P - 5 Mini- Sprinkler x

15 Economics of Drip Irrigation in Alfalfa for Four Different Situations Plot No. Initial Cost of the System (US $) Total Water Saving/Y ear (M 3 ) Equivalent Energy Saving/ Year (K.W. hr) Labour Saving /Year (person days) Yield Increase From the entire plot (Kg) Private Benefit/C ost (Level 1) Economic Benefit/ Cost Ratio (Level 2) Economic Benefit/ Cost Ratio (Level 3) Private Benefit/ Cost Ratio (for water buyers) (Level 4)

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17 Crops conducive to WSTs Crops conducive to WSTs Crop CategoryDifferent crops conducive for WSTsType of WSTs that can be usedRegions* Tree crops and orchards Mango, Guava, Gooseberry, Pomegranate, Sapote, Orange, Coconut, Banana, Date palm, Grapes, Papaya, Citrus and Kinnow, Drumstick Drips (for all); and also Sprinklers (Banana, Mango) and plastic mulching in case of extreme water stress Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Punjab Row field cropsPotato and GroundnutDrips; and also mulching (for groundnut and potato) Gujarat, Maharashtra and Punjab Plantation CropsCoconut, Coffee, Tea, TeakDrips (for coconut and teak); and sprinklers (for tea and coffee) Kerala and Karnataka (coconut, tea and coffee), Orissa (tea); Tamil Nadu (coconut) Field CropsWheat, Pearl millet, Sorghum, Maize, Alfalfa, Mustard Overhead sprinklers (wheat, pearl millet, maize and sorghum) and mini and micro sprinklers for alfalfa Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, and Karnataka Fruit/VegetablesTomatoes, Brinjal, Gourds, Chilly, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Strawberry Drips, and plastic mulchingMaharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka Cash cropsCotton, Fennel, Castor, Sugarcane, Vanilla and Cumin Drips for sugarcane; fogger sprinklers for Vanilla; and micro sprinklers for cumin Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Gujarat (for cotton, sugarcane and ground nut), Gujarat for cumin and fennel, and Kerala for vanilla

18 Estimated Area under Crops Conducive to Water Saving Irrigation Technologies Estimated Area under Crops Conducive to Water Saving Irrigation Technologies Sr. No.Name of the StateTotal Area under crops conducive to WSTs Percentage Area under the Crop 1 Andhra Pradesh557, Bihar Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir00 7 Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Total79,30, *

19 Aggregate Saving in Water Possible with Drip Irrigation Systems Aggregate Saving in Water Possible with Drip Irrigation Systems Sr. No Name of Crop Current Yield (ton/ha) Expected Yield Coming from the Potential States* (Million ton) Water Use Efficiency (Kg/m 3 ) Modified Water Use Efficiency (Kg/m 3 ) Water Saving (BCM) 1Sugarcane Cotton Groundnut Potato Castor Onion Total44.46


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