Presentation on theme: "Institute for Resource Analysis and Policy"— Presentation transcript:
1Institute for Resource Analysis and Policy Tackling Groundwater Problems in Arid and Semi Arid Regions: Debating Physical OptionsM. Dinesh KumarInstitute for Resource Analysis and PolicyHyderabad
2Purpose of the SessionThis session would discuss the various physical options for groundwater management in the context of semi arid and arid regions of India, and their scope and limitations.
3Content Introduction to overview of problems Supply side options for groundwater managementScope and limitationsDemand side options for groundwater managementTechnology and cropping systems
4IntroductionGroundwater is an important water source in many dry regions of the worldReasons are the large stocks, and reliability of supplies, as compared to highly variable nature of surface water sourcesLargely treated as an inexhaustible source of water for a long timeWell irrigation has great advantages over surface irrigation
5Introduction contd..In Indian sub-continent, the resource is characterized by high physical heterogeneityUnconsolidated formation (mainly alluvial)Semi-consolidated formations (sedimentary sandstoneConsolidated formations (hard rock formation of basalt, crystalline rocks and sandstone origin)Over-development is causing threat to groundwater supplies for irrigation and drinking uses in terms of depletion and quality deterioration in many regions
6Introduction … contd.A comprehensive understanding of the management alternatives--physical, economic, institutional, policy and legal--, are lacking.It is more so for South Asian countries.Water policy makers are aware of the need for groundwater management, but often not familiar with the range of physical, economic, legal and policy instruments for groundwater management and their potential implications.
7Standard instruments for controlling exploitation of groundwater Need local runoff; otherwise inter-regional water transferStrong political system; institutional mechanisms neededFarmers are major vote banks in IndiaDifficult to enforce in Indian contextMany arid & semi arid areas are exporting virtual waterSupply augmentationWater rights in the form of well permits; volumetric use rightsIndirect charges through energy pricingDirect regulation of drilling; pump setsVirtual water trade
8Physical approaches for groundwater management There are three different types of benefits that the society could accrue from a management intervention.They are: economic benefits; ecological/environmental benefits; and livelihood benefits.From societal point of view, a management decision would be sound, only if the aggregate of these benefits exceed the costs of proposed interventions.The aggregate benefits are a sum of the economic benefits and all the positive externalities on the society associated with the environmental/ecological and livelihood benefits.
9How over-exploitation occurs? The negative consequences associated with groundwater over-exploitation are a result of net groundwater outflows exceeding the net inflows.The outflows could include: groundwater draft; evapo-transpiration of groundwater from shallow aquifers (both anthropogenic); groundwater outflows into streams and natural drainage and sinks; and regional (lateral) groundwater flows.The inflows include: natural recharge from precipitation (rainfall and snow); regional (lateral) groundwater inflows; recharge from natural water bodies such as lakes, ponds, tanks and river flows; and recharge from irrigation (both conveyance systems and irrigation water application in the field).
10Contd..The negative consequences could be: secular decline in water levels; seasonal water levels drops; intrusion of sea water in coastal aquifers; land subsidence; and deterioration of natural quality of groundwater due to leakages from saline aquifers as a result of hydraulic gradients, and geo-hydrochemical processes; and reduction in stream flows.The approaches to manage groundwater should attempt: i] reducing the outflows that are the results of anthropogenic activities, which can be managed through human actions; and, ii] increasing the components of inflows that can be manipulated by human actions.
11Various supply side approaches Increasing the Inflows:Local water harvesting and recharging of groundwater through:Spreading basin methodDug well recharging (ASR)Check damsInjection wellsInduced rechargePercolation tanks with recharge tube wellsWatershed management
12Supply side approaches Water transfers from water-rich regions for providing alternative sources of water supplyCalifornia CVPNorth Gujarat receiving SSP watersRecycling and rechargeWaste stabilization pondsSoil Aquifer Treatment (Israel)
13Potential of local water harvesting and artificial recharge Groundwater depletion and water scarcity mainly occur in arid and semi arid regionsWater harvesting does not work in semi arid and arid regions with:Low annual runoff, high inter-annual variability; high potential evaporation; and when basins are “closed”This is due to:Poor hydrological opportunities for harvesting and poor reliability of water supplyPoor economic viability-ive d/s impacts due to high degree of water development
14What is the condition in India? Rainfall is low in most agriculturally prosperous regions of India, which experience depletion problemsRainfall variability is also highEvaporation rates are very highThe basins in these regions are also “closed”
15Physical approaches for demand management Agricultural water demand managementTechnological interventionsCropping system changeGrowing crops in regions with high water productivity due to climatic advantages
16Potential impacts of micro-irrigation on groundwater use Depends on three factors:How much water could be saved using the technology at the field levelWhat farmers do with the saved waterWhat opportunities exist at the macro level for adoption of the technology
17Constraints and opportunities in adoption of micro irrigation systems Farmers without independent source of water have least incentive to adopt MI systemsArea under crops that are most amenable to MI systems in terms of water saving benefits and income benefits are low in semi arid & arid regions—7.8 M ha in IndiaNegligible in the Indus basin area in Punjab & HaryanaAbsence of limits on groundwater pumping and zero marginal cost of using it reduces the economic incentives for farmers having smaller holdings in good aquifer basinsIn hard rock areas, well interference further reduces individual initiatives to save water in the aquifer
18Constraints and Opportunities in adoption of micro irrigation systems Small operational holding of farmers increases the unit capital and operating cost of MI systemPredominance of small & marginal farmers limits large-scale adoption of orchards having long gestation periodIn areas where power supply limits water abstraction, especially for large farmers, farmers have least incentive to go for MI systems as it does not help them expand the areaIn hard rock areas, with limited groundwater, farmers have high incentive to go for MI systems, as they could expand the area under the irrigated cropsCurrent geographical spread of adoption of MIS is a testimony to this
19Opportunities for field level water saving Field level water saving through MIS depends on agro-climate, type of MI technology, groundwater environment; crop type; and current irrigation practicesReal water saving at field level would be significant in arid and semi arid basins, with deep groundwater table, with drip irrigation used for row cropsSuch areas include alluvial central Punjab, western Rajasthan and north Gujarat and deep water table areas of peninsular IndiaBut, applied water saving is also likely to be negligible in the Ganges plains even if crops amenable to such systems exist in this region
20Opportunities for field level water saving The reasons is low non-beneficial depletion of water from soils under traditional method of irrigationReal water saving would be further lower as the deep percolation would be fully recoveredThe potential for water saving drip irrigation in India was estimated to be 5.9 m haThe total reduction in crop water requirement due to this was estimated to be 44 BCM.
21What is the likely impact of MI systems on aggregate water use at the regional level? Often MI adoption is associated with changes in cropping system towards from traditional crops to high valued orchards--north Gujarat, Nalgonda, Jalgaon etc.Hence water saving at the field level could be highBut, this can also lead to expansion in irrigated areas, particularly in situations where actual irrigated area is less than the cultivable areaIn areas where MI system results in “saving in applied water” alone, aggregate impact would be greater depletion of waterIn situations like Punjab, MI system adoption can lead to real water saving, but cropping system is not amenable
22What is the likely impact of cropping system changes at regional level? Many traditional crops and dairying in semi arid and arid regions have low water productivityReplacement of traditional crops by high valued fruit crops can cut down water use even at the aggregate level due to:Significant reductions in depleted water for a unit areaAbsence of sufficient cultivable area to use up all the saved water at the farm levelBut, many farming systems are complex. Crop residues form inputs for dairying in many areas.Dairying yields high water productivity in Punjab, when compliments rice-wheat system
23How far can it work in Indus and Yellow Basins? Replacing low water-efficient rice-wheat system will disturb dairyingImporting fodder would increase the farming risks if done at a large scaleLarge scale adoption of high valued fruit crops can lead to market crash, leading to major drops in water productivity itselfAlso, extent to which crop shifts can take place at the regional level would be constrained by concerns of food security, and employment generation in agriculturePunjab part of Indus basin and also north China plains (part of Yellow river basin) employs rural labour on large-scale; export food to water-rich regionsImproving the productivity of existing crops will have to get priority
24Agro-climate impact on crop water productivity In many basins, major variations in agro-climate exist spatiallyIndian Punjab (900 to 400 mm rainfall)Climate can affect crop yields through solar radiation and temperatureIt can also affect the evapo-transpiration (change in humidity, wind speed)Soil conditions will have impact on crop yieldsHence, agro climate can have big impact on water productivityIn Narmada basin, wheat water productivity varied widely across 9 agro climatic sub-regions
25SummaryThe approaches for augmenting groundwater in over-exploited areas.They include: groundwater recharge using local runoff; recharge using imported water; and, recharge using treated wastewater.In arid and semi-arid regions, the hydrological opportunities, the reliability and economic viability of artificial recharge using local runoff would be generally very low.The other two options are being practiced in developed countries, where the financial resources for such schemes are available in plenty, and the environmental value of improved groundwater environment are well recognized.
26SummaryAnother major approach being tried world over the world is water-efficient irrigation, to raise crop water productivity.They cover: water-efficient micro irrigation devices; and efficient irrigation practices, including efficient conveyance systems.Field level real water saving due to water-efficient irrigation devices depends on the crop type, climate, soils and geo-hydrological environmentWater-saving at the aggregate level would depend on a variety of socio-economic conditions including availability of extra land for cultivation; the availability of power supply vis-à-vis the amount of groundwater that can be abstracted
27SummaryScope for agricultural water productivity improvement through crop shifts at the regional level would be determined by a variety of socio-economic conditions such as the contribution of the existing cropping system to regional food security, the employment generation in rural areas, and the presence of market infrastructure for high valued crops.But, in any case, the outcomes of water productivity improvement through crop shifts in terms of reduction in groundwater draft would also depend on the opportunities for farmers to expand the area under irrigation.We have also demonstrated that in some regions, opportunities might exist for enhancing water productivity by taking climatic advantages
29Will Water Harvesting and Local Recharging Benefit Water-Scarce Regions?
30Estimated Unit Cost of Artificial Recharge Structures Built under Pilot Scheme of CGWB Sr. NoType of Recharge Structure (Life in years)Expected Active Life of the SystemEstimated Recharge Benefit(TCM)Capital Cost of the Structure (in Lac Rs.)Cost of the Structure per m3 of water(Rs/m3)Annualized Cost*1Percolation Tank102Check Dam53Recharge Trench/Shaft/4Sub-surface Dyke
31Effect of Watershed Interventions on Run-Off Ghelo-Somnath Rainfall and Reservoir Inflows2040608010012014069717375777981838587899193959799135YearTotal Rainfall, cmTotal Runoff, cm
33Water productivity in crops and dairying in north Gujarat
34Vibrant dairy economy is a constraint to saving groundwater in north Gujarat Milk Production and Aggregate Groundwater Use with WST0.0010.0020.0030.0040.0050.0060.0070.000.10.2Min0.30.40.50.126.96.36.199CurProdProportion of Current Production of Milk% Saving in Water Use
35Water productivity in wheat in different regions of narmada basin
36Current scale of adoption of MI systems Name of StatesArea underTotal Area (ha)DripSprinklerTotalArea (ha)Rajasthan17002706813723815Maharashtra482341214674697015Haryana7136518367525502Andhra Pradesh363073200950564023Karnataka177326228621405947Gujarat169689136284305973Tamil Nadu13133527186158521West Bengal146150031150177Madhya Pradesh20432117685138117Chhattisgarh36485927062919Orissa36292346627095Uttar Pradesh106751058921264Punjab117301051122241Kerala14119251616635Sikkim801003010110Bihar163206369Others150003000045000India Total