Presentation on theme: "Nanotechnology in Agriculture"— Presentation transcript:
1 Nanotechnology in Agriculture Group 1:Amy CornforthTony GruppAna D’AlmeidaMarch 26, 2010
2 Food and Agriculture Issues Ability to track products, nutrient levels, and other information necessary to increase productivityDecontamination of soils and waterProtection against pests and diseases
3 3 Areas of Nanotechnology Development in Agriculture: Topic Overview3 Areas of Nanotechnology Development in Agriculture:NanobarcodesApplications and Pesticide RemediationPesticide Delivery
4 Nanobarcodes – What are they? Offers a way to “tag” any type of organic or non-organic like a UPC codeTypically uses gold and silver as the detecting strips, but platinum, palladium nickel, and cobalt have been usedCan easily be read with an electronic scanning device or microscopeMade through nanoscale electroplating of the metals into desired patternsImage at PennSt. University website:
5 How are Nanobarcodes made? Current technology uses metallized templates which can be dissolved awayDepending on the order of electroplating a very wide variety of combinations can be made. Some examples are shown hereImages from:
6 Slide taken from Oxonica presentation found at: http://www. oxonica
7 Two Types of Nanobarcodes Metallic Stripes or Discs?Sizes range from nm in length, nm in diameterUses electroplated barsViewed using a scanner producing blue lightProven to be highly accurateCan be grown to 12 μm in lengthUses up to 10 disc pairs of metals, resulting in up to 287 different nanodisc codesViewed using a special laser beamNo current data on accuracyImage on left:Image on right:
8 Applications of Nanobarcodes DNA nanobarcoding for pathogen detection (such as Ebola and SARS)Monitoring of bacterial systemsCan be used as a “nano-sensor” to detect water levels, soil nutrient information, and chemical levelsTagging food packagesTemperature changesPathogensLeaksBiomolecular tracingMaximizes productivityImage at:
9 Dr. Dan Luo – Cornell University One of the earliest researchers of nanobarcodesFirst paper describing the use of nanobarcoding produced in early 2005Runs LuoLabs, which works with various nanotechnologies geared towards DNA researchWorks with 2 other professors, 6 post-docs, and nearly a dozen other PhD and Masters studentsHas won numerous awards and research grants
10 Further ResearchCurrently no information about pricing or risk analysisMost research is gearing towards the medical community, with applications that can be used in agriculture, especially packaging and husbandryCurrent pathology detection systems can only detect up to 8 pathogens simultaneously. That range is attempting to be increased to over 20
12 Atomically modified seeds Nanotechnology ApplicationsAtomically modified seedsExperiment by ETC group that aimed to the characteristics of local rice varieties. Hole was drilled on the membrane of a rice cell and a N2 atom was introduced to stimulate rearrangement of rice’s DNA.
13 Atomically modified seeds Nanotechnology ApplicationsAtomically modified seedsResearchers have been able to alter the color of the rice from purple to greenGoal of the research is to develop a variety of rice that can be grown all year longRice variety with shorter stems and improved grain color
14 Nanotechnology Advantages Possibility to fabricate sensors to monitor pathogens on crops and measure their productivity.DisadvantagesIncrease the ability of potentially toxic substances to penetrate deep layers of the soil and travel large distances.
15 Nanotechnology Current status Future Trends Still in early stages of developmentSome of the new developed tools may not be viableInterdisciplinary studyFuture TrendsDevelop to produce validated technologiesChances for job creationChances to become the next technological revolution
16 Image at:http://www.nanowerk.com/news/newsid=1806.php ExperimentDomestic water filter that uses metal nanoparticles to remove dissolved pesticide residues is about to enter the Indian market.Developed at at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) in ChennaiTested for over six monthsResulted from research on chemistry of nanopartilesImage at:http://www.nanowerk.com/news/newsid=1806.php
17 Stable pesticide and its frequently found on soils EndosulfanStable pesticide and its frequently found on soilsHas the potential to cause health problems including, genetic disordersCan be detected in ppm levels using gold nanoparticlesIs adsorbed on to the nanoparticles surfaceAfter long interaction, nanoparticles precipitate from the solution.can be detected and selectively extracted by nobel metal nanoparticlesProcess can be used for field detectionScaled up for environmental decontaminationDrinking water purification
18 Experiment Gold(silver) nanoparticles were prepared Gold solution –wine redYellow solution-silverEndolsulfan solution was preparedSolution were mixed and stablized with citrateSet of solution with different concentrations of endosulfan were preparedUV spectra was takenNanoparticles did not participate after the reaction for a period of nine hoursA- pure citrateB,C, D 2, 10 , 100 ppmImage at:Published in: J. Environ. Monit., 2003, 5, , DOI: /b300107e
19 Absorbances recorded after 9 h of addition of endosulfan 2,10,150, 200 ppm endosulfanAbsorbances recorded after 9 h of addition of endosulfanPlasmon at 524 nm decreases in intensity after 3h addition,Additional peaks occur at longer wave lengthsDampening and shifting of the plasmon indicates binding on the nanoparticle surface.Published in: J. Environ. Monit., 2003, 5, , DOI: /b300107e
20 a) original naparticle solution b) 3h after addition of endosulfan c to t) 20 min intervals after additionAs the concentration increases :red shift becomes more pronounceIntensity of color change is quantitave, can be detected by colorimetric methodsPeak at 524 nm decrease intensity and a new peak emerges at 624 nmnew peak intensity increases accompanied by further shift. The shift can be attributed to adsorption of on the surface of gold nanoparticles.After 9 h, the solution becomes bluish and the material begins to settle down.The residue is removed by centrifugation.Image at:Published in: J. Environ. Monit., 2003, 5, , DOI: /b300107e
21 Bluish material was analyzed by FT- IR Silver nanoparticlesa) pure clusterb) 2 ppmc) 10 ppmd) 100 ppme) 250 ppmBluish material was analyzed by FT- IRa) Pure endosulfanb)Endolsulfan after adsorption to gold particles (broad dands)c) Endolsulfanafter reaction with silver( similar to A)Image at:Published in: J. Environ. Monit., 2003, 5, , DOI: /b300107e
22 Better approach to apply technology to the field is to use nanoparticle films. Gold nanoparticle film by layer-layer assembly on SnO2 coated conducting glass plates.Image at:Published in: J. Environ. Monit., 2003, 5, , DOI: /b300107e
23 Adsorption occurs at 525nm. Band at 609 nm due to electronic interaction of particles.(Occurs after formation of second layer)Layer exposed to endosulfan for 10 hRed shift observed ( 14 nm difference)Film changes color. Intensity increases because due to intercalation of endosulfan into the bulk of the film leading to substituition of some of the components.Image at:Published in: J. Environ. Monit., 2003, 5, , DOI: /b300107e
25 Design of Pheromone Releasing Fibers for Plant Protection Pests negatively affect harvestsAmountQualityPesticides, insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides are traditionally used to aid in plant growthUse is restricted due to possible environmental damagesPhoto:Published in: Christoph Hellmann, Andreas Greiner and Joachim H. Wendorff; Polym. Adv. Technol. 2009,DOI: /pat.1532 Copyright John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
26 Design of Pheromone Releasing Fibers for Plant Protection Alternative: Use pheromones to counteract insect damagePheromones are used by insects to transmit messagesMating pheromones are the most related to plant protectionCan use mating pheromones to trap insects or disrupt mating patternsAdvantages:Can use pheromones selectivelyPublished in: Christoph Hellmann, Andreas Greiner and Joachim H. Wendorff; Polym. Adv. Technol. 2009,DOI: /pat.1532 Copyright John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
27 Design of Pheromone Releasing Fibers for Plant Protection Current spread of pheromones is done by mechanical meansSprayingDispensersDispensers are used in vineyardsEuropean grape berry mothPhoto:Published in: Christoph Hellmann, Andreas Greiner and Joachim H. Wendorff; Polym. Adv. Technol. 2009,DOI: /pat.1532 Copyright John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
28 Design of Pheromone Releasing Fibers for Plant Protection Problems with mechanical means of distributionStrong concentration requiredSensitive to wind and rainUneven distribution (Dispensers)Published in: Christoph Hellmann, Andreas Greiner and Joachim H. Wendorff; Polym. Adv. Technol. 2009,DOI: /pat.1532 Copyright John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
29 Design of Pheromone Releasing Fibers for Plant Protection Use nanofiber webs to hold pheromonesProtection from wind and rainContinued, controlled releaseVery even distributionWebs are produced by electrospinningPhoto:Published in: Christoph Hellmann, Andreas Greiner and Joachim H. Wendorff; Polym. Adv. Technol. 2009,DOI: /pat.1532 Copyright John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
30 Electrospinning Related to electrostatic spraying Use a charged liquid and electrode to make an electric fieldLiquid surface tension competes with electric fieldTaylor cone describes the behavior of liquid with different voltagesPolymers produce fibers rather than droplets due to chain entanglementsPhoto:http://www.gwu.edu/~vertes/Resources/ElectrosprayPDA5.gifVia:
32 Pheromone (Z)-9-dodecenyl acetate ExperimentPheromone (Z)-9-dodecenyl acetateDisrupts the European grape berry mothAdded pheromone to spinning solution in varying concentrationsPolyamide 6 and Formic acidCellulose acetatePublished in: Christoph Hellmann, Andreas Greiner and Joachim H. Wendorff; Polym. Adv. Technol. 2009,DOI: /pat.1532 Copyright John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
33 Polyamide 6 fiber without pheromone Polyamide 6 fiber with pheromone ExperimentPolyamide 6 fiber without pheromonePolyamide 6 fiber with pheromonePublished in: Christoph Hellmann, Andreas Greiner and Joachim H. Wendorff; Polym. Adv. Technol. 2009,DOI: /pat.1532 Copyright John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
34 Cellulose acetate fibers of varying pheromone concentrations ExperimentCellulose acetate fibers of varying pheromone concentrationsPublished in: Christoph Hellmann, Andreas Greiner and Joachim H. Wendorff; Polym. Adv. Technol. 2009,DOI: /pat.1532 Copyright John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
35 PA fiber release faster than CA release Pheromone releaseApproximately linearPA fiber release faster than CA releaseCA release possibly as long as 100 daysPublished in: Christoph Hellmann, Andreas Greiner and Joachim H. Wendorff; Polym. Adv. Technol. 2009,DOI: /pat.1532 Copyright John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
36 Published in: DOI: 10. 1002/pat Published in: DOI: /pat.1532 Copyright John Wiley and Sons, Ltd. See previous slide for addt'l information.
37 Summary of Experiment Promising work Needs careful consideration of carrier web materialUse fibers with long decomposition timeUse biodegradable fibersMultiple developments to reduce cost of electrospinning
38 Group S1 Rebuttal Comments varied between positive and negative Group 1 agrees that a more normalized slide formatting would have helped, although the use of technical terms for experimental analysis was necessary.Due to a lack of data given by researching companies, and the present relevance of the information, it was logical to present the overall topic as three separate topics, and thus it was not required for one to be connected to the next.
39 Group S2’s Evaluation of S1 Second Presentation Micheal JonesRachel HoukChris Heflin
40 Positive Aspects Oral presentation was up to par Presenters were dressed professionalMost presenters were confident and conciseSlide quality well formattedAnimation was helpful in understandingIntroduction was informativeSet up the rest of the presentation nicelyQuestion and answer session solidified presentation
41 Room for ImprovementUse of filler words needs to be minimized. One of the presenters needed more preparation.The presentation was shorter than it initially was planned to be.A few slides contained too much information but overall the group performed well
42 Review of S1—Nanotechnology in Agriculture By S3:James KancewickMichael KoettingBradford Lamb
43 ReviewThe first and third sections of the presentation were easy to understand and the speakers did a good job of explaining the material.The second section of the presentation (endosulfan experiment) was difficult to follow; the slides also contained numerous spelling and formatting errors, and the graphs were not labeled well.Endosulfan experiment should have been explained in layman’s terms instead of with purely scientific numbers and no explanation of the implications of the findings.
44 Review Text and graphics were occasionally too small. Applications of nanobarcodes in agriculture were not sufficiently detailed for this presentation’s topic.Slide formatting was sometimes haphazard; more parallel slide design would have made the presentation much more professional.
45 S4 Review of S1(2nd presentation) Joshua MorenoDanielle MillerScott Marwil
46 Things Done Well Topic was very interesting The video in the slides was entertainingEveryone looked nice and professionalAna did especially well presentingThe slide design looked professional and appealed to the audience since we are all Aggies
47 Things to Improve ON Slides were too cluttered Too much text- this made the font size small in some places and it was also distractingLayout of the slides- try to balance the space so as to please the eyesInstead of covering the background of the slides when you have giant pictures, change the layout to a blank slide or title slide so it looks more professional
48 Things to Improve ONEliminate all spelling errors; these are unprofessional and easy to take care ofSpeak clear and pronounce wordsWould have been nice to see more vibrant colorful picturesSome slides seem to have more than one title?Indent bullets under there headings (advantages and disadvantages slide)
49 Group S5 REVIEW of Nanotechnology in Agriculture Trevor SeidelLaura YoungPradip Rijal
50 Presentation ReviewThe presentation had a good balance between graphics and wordsSome of the presenters were easy to understand while others were not as clearThe presentation seemed did not flow from one section to the next making it hard to pay attentionThe introduction failed to tie the different topics together
51 Presentation ReviewThe topics were not well connected or well developed, with the second topic containing far to many graphs making the presentation hard to followExperiment detailed in slides should have come before its conclusions/summary in slides 14,15.
52 Nanotechnology in Agriculture (S1) Critique CHEN 481 Critique by S6:John BaumhardtDaniel ArnoldMichael TrevathanMichael Tran
53 ReviewThe slide templates looked professional. The colors used made the slides easy to read.The slides should be more uniform – the font, layout, text size all varied drastically from slide to slide.Good use of pictures, however there should have been more pictures and less text – we are too lazy to read.The text was too small on many of the slides to read from the back of the room.Make research graphs fill an entire slide and explain them more thoroughly – this is our first time seeing the graph.
54 ReviewNeeded a better explanation of the benefits of red shift to the agriculture.The barcode section was off topic comparatively to the other sections.The crop improvement research needed a conclusion and application slideGood job using multiple articles that were broadly discussed – you were able to encompass more of the agriculture industry.Overall good technical presentation.
55 ReviewAll the speakers spoke clearly and confidently. It appeared as though they had practiced prior to the presentation.Everyone dressed nicely and took the presentation seriously.Limited amount of filler words used.Great job orally.If you read off the slides use the monitor instead of the projector so you don’t turn your body away from the audience