Presentation on theme: "Subsistence vs. Commercial Farming (LDC ‘s) vs. (MDC’s)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Subsistence vs. Commercial Farming (LDC ‘s) vs. (MDC’s) Differ in five ways:PurposePercentage of farmersMachineryFarm sizeFarms and other industries
2 Purpose Subsistence: Commercial: People produce food for their own consumptionSome surplus may be sold, but not the primary purposeCommercial:Grow crops and raise animals for sale off the farmAgricultural products are sold to food processing companies
3 In the U.S. and Canada only 2% Percentage of FarmersLDC’s:More than one half of the workers are engaged directly in farmingMDC’s:Less than one tenth of the workers are engaged directly in farmingIn the U.S. and Canada only 2%
4 Labor Force in Agriculture, 2005 Fig. 10-3: A large proportion of workers in most LDCs are in agriculture, while only a small percentage of workers in MDCs are engaged in agriculture.
5 Machinery LDC’s: MDC’s: Mostly rely on hand tools and animal power Lack effective transportation systemsLack technologyMDC’s:Tractors, combines, pickers, and planters have replaced most manual laborRailroads, highways, and trucks get crops to markets without spoilingBiological research produce higher crop yields and healthier animalsElectronics provide precise data
6 Combines on Wheat in Kansas Combines can reap, thresh, and clean crops like wheat in a single operation.
7 Farm Size LDC’s: MDC’s: Very small Very large (444acre avg. in U.S.) Most are family owned and operated
8 Tractors, per croplandFig. 10-4: Tractors per 1000 hectares of cropland. Use of machinery is extensive in most MDC agriculture, but it is much less common in LDCs.
9 Farms and other industries LDC’s:Very isolatedMDC’s:Tied closely to other businessesNot isolated they are integrated into a large food-production industry20% of U.S. labor work in food production and agribusiness services
10 11 Main Agricultural Regions 5 Regions important in LDC’s6 Regions important in MDC’sDerwent Whittlesey points out a correlation between agriculture and climateCultural preferences can explain some agricultural differences in areas of similar climate
11 World Agriculture Regions Fig. 10-5b: Locations of the major types of subsistence and commercial agriculture.
12 Agriculture in Less Developed Countries Characteristics of subsistence regionsProduce for own consumptionLarge percentage of workforce engaged in agricultureFew mechanical aidsVery small parcels of landIsolated from economy
13 Rice Harvesting, Indonesia Wet rice is often harvested by hand in Asia.
14 Agriculture in Less Developed Countries Most people in the world are subsistence farmers.*Less developed=More farmers*Types of subsistence agriculture:Shifting cultivationPastoral nomadismIntensive subsistence agriculturePlantation farming
15 Labor Force in Agriculture, 2005 Fig. 10-3: A large proportion of workers in most LDCs are in agriculture, while only a small percentage of workers in MDCs are engaged in agriculture.
16 Shifting Cultivation NOT Shifting “Agriculture” Two distinguishing characteristics*Slash-and-burn agriculture*Only grow on cleared land for 2-3 years
17 Shifting Cultivation in Guatemala Dense vegetation has been cut and is being burned to open land for farming.
18 Shifting Cultivation Cycle Cut down big trees As they fall they take Undergrowth is leaving economically down the smaller cleared by machete useful ones trees or long knife Debris is burned Rain washes ashes Fields are prepared under carefully into the soil by hand controlled conditions Crops grown for Field is left fallow New patch of land 3yrs or less for many years is selected
19 World Agriculture Regions What are some consequences of Shifting Cultivation? Hint: think of the geography in the three major areas it is prevalent.
22 Types of Crops S.E. Asia: Upland Rice South America: Maize and Manioc Africa: Millet and Sorghum
23 What do their fields look like? For the Kayopo tribe of Brazil they are arranged in concentric circles. Why?One swidden will have a variety of intermingled crops
24 Who owns the land? The village as a whole Each family is allocated a patch of landOne quarter of the worlds land area is occupied by shifting cultivationBut only 5% of the worlds people engage in it
25 The Future of Shifting Cultivation Half of the earth’s tropical rain forests have been destroyed.Being replaced by logging, cattle ranching, and cultivation of cash crops.Its critics view it as a preliminary step in economic developmentIts defenders consider it the most environmentally sound approachIf eliminated it could upset the traditional diversity of cultures in the tropicsThis type is shrinking but will not disappear quickly
26 Pastoral Nomadism Based on the herding of domesticated animals Dependent on animals rather than crops for survival.The animals provide:MilkClothingTents
27 Pastoral Nomadic DietWhat was noticeably missing from the list of things the animals provide?They rarely slaughter the animals.Their diet is still primarily grains.
28 What?If they depend on animals rather than crops for survival…but don’t eat the animals…What gives???They get their grains in different ways:Some trade animal products for grainSome have part of their group stay putSome hire workers to grow itSome plant, wander around, then return to harvestSome stay in one place long enough to grow and then move on
29 Animals, Animals, Animals The animals are chosen because of cultural or physical characteristicsMiddle East: Dromedary Camel, Sheep, GoatsCentral Asia: Bactrian Camels, HorsesA typical nomadic family would need:25-60 Sheep/Goats10-25 Camels
30 Pastoral Nomads in Iran Qashqai nomads using paved roads to move their animals near Shiraz, Iran.
31 Nomads DO NOT wander aimlessly They have a strong sense of territoryThey have precise migration patterns based on knowledge:The areas physical characteristicsCultural characteristicsMost likely water sourcesPolitical stabilitySome practice transhumance
32 The Future of Pastoral Nomadism Declining form of agricultureNo longer play an important role in transportation and communicationsIn the future it will be increasingly confined to areas that cannot be irrigated or lack raw materials
33 Intensive Subsistence Agriculture Intensive implies that farmers must work harder to subsist on a parcel of landFound in densely populated E.,S., and S.E. AsiaTwo types:Intensive Subsistence, Wet Rice DominantIntensive Subsistence, Wet Rice Not Dominant
34 Characteristics Agricultural Density Fragmented Plots Waste virtually no land
35 Intensive, Wet Rice Dominant Most dominant type of agriculture in S.E. China, E. India, and S.E. AsiaLabor intensive and elaborate processAll family members contribute to the effortDouble Cropping
36 World Rice Production, 2005Asian farmers grow over 90% of the world’s rice. India and China alone account for over half of world rice production.
37 Intensive, Wet Rice Dominant Steps to Growing Rice seed is planted in a nurseryFields are prepared and plowedField is floodedSeedlings are transferred and planted in the flooded fieldEach plant is cared for individually until harvest
38 Intensive, Wet Rice Not Dominant This is an ancient form of agriculture, think of places like Medieval EuropeDominant in interior India, and N.E. ChinaWheat is the most important cropOther grains and legumes are also grownCash crops include; cotton, flax, hemp, and tobaccoIn milder areas two harvests possible
39 Land Ownership in China Communist Government OwnsOrganized agricultural producer communes in 1949Communes dismantledVillagers now sign contracts to farm portions as private individualsTransition has been difficult
40 Plantation Farming Form of commercial agriculture found in LDC’s Generally owned or operated by Europeans and North AmericansCrops grown for sale primarily in MDC’s
41 Plantations Large farm specializing in one or two crops Latin America- Grow coffee, sugar cane, bananasAsia- Grow rubber and palm oilWorkers must be brought inCrops processed at the plantation