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New cell technology spurs hybrid batteries: Testing of Lithium Batteries Containing Both Primary and Secondary Cells. Transportation of Lithium Batteries.

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Presentation on theme: "New cell technology spurs hybrid batteries: Testing of Lithium Batteries Containing Both Primary and Secondary Cells. Transportation of Lithium Batteries."— Presentation transcript:

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2 New cell technology spurs hybrid batteries: Testing of Lithium Batteries Containing Both Primary and Secondary Cells. Transportation of Lithium Batteries and/or Equipment Containing Both Lithium Metal and Lithium Ion Cells and / or Batteries. Dr. Thomas Dittrich Consultant

3 New Hybrid Battery Thomas Dittrich (Tadiran) - New Hybrid Battery Testing and Transportation - March Battery combines Lithium Metal Cell and Lithium Ion Cell (primary) (rechargeable)

4 New Hybrid Battery Thomas Dittrich (Tadiran) - New Hybrid Battery Testing and Transportation - March  A composite electrical battery including a primary cell and a fully or partially discharged rechargeable cell.  The rechargeable cell is electrically connected in parallel to the primary cell  The open circuit voltage of the primary cell is significantly lower than the open circuit voltage of the rechargeable cell when the rechargeable cell is fully charged  Standby operation, no cycling, no charging device  The self-discharge rate of the rechargeable cell is very low  The composite battery has an improved current delivery capability for an extended life span (typically years) compared to the primary cell by itself.

5 New Hybrid Battery Thomas Dittrich (Tadiran) - New Hybrid Battery Testing and Transportation - March  Battery is NOT RECHARGEABLE  Contains rechargeable cell(s)  Intrinsically not overchargeable because primary cell(s) have lower voltage than rechargeable cell(s).

6 Thomas Dittrich (Tadiran) - New Hybrid Battery Testing and Transportation - March New Hybrid Battery  Typical lithium / energy content of the rechargeable cell  Size (ddll) [mm]EnergyEquivalent contentlithium content 1520(3,6 Volts; 0,039 Ah): 0,14 Wh0,02 g Li (3,9 Volts; 0,058 Ah): 0,27 Wh0,04 g Li 1530 (3,6 Volts; 0,070 Ah):0,25 Wh0,04 g Li (3,9 Volts; 0,105 Ah): 0,41 Wh0,07 g Li 1550 (3,6 Volts; 0,155 Ah):0,56 Wh0,07 g Li (3,9 Volts; 0,240 Ah): 0,94 Wh0,13 g Li

7 Thomas Dittrich (Tadiran) - New Hybrid Battery Testing and Transportation - March New Hybrid Battery Current understanding:  The existing Test Methods and Criteria for Primary Batteries are applicable to the Hybrid Battery  Transportation is allowed under class 9, UN 3090/3091

8 Thomas Dittrich (Tadiran) - New Hybrid Battery Testing and Transportation - March Exemption limits 1) Battery contains at least 2 cells (since ST/SG/AC.10/11/Rev.5/Amend.1, 2011, adopted in ADR since 2013) 2) under certain conditions (s. special provision 188) 3) Nominal energy: 20 Wh correspond to approx. 1,5 g lithium equivalent content.

9 Thomas Dittrich (Tadiran) - New Hybrid Battery Testing and Transportation - March Consideration of exemption limits with regard to Hybrid Batteries  Exemption limits for Lithium Metal Batteries are similar or tighter than those for Lithium Ion Batteries  Many Hybrid Batteries on the market exceed the exemption limits and are therefore subject to the Dangerous Goods Regulations  It might be useful to revert to the equivalent lithium content concept for lithium ion cells contained in hybrid batteries.

10 Thomas Dittrich (Tadiran) - New Hybrid Battery Testing and Transportation - March UN Manual of Tests and Criteria Test plan Consecutive non destructive tests followed by short circuit   

11 UN-Tests done with Hybrid Batteries and their component cells Test plans and results

12 Test plan Example rechargeable component cell: Size 1550 Thomas Dittrich (Tadiran) - New Hybrid Battery Testing and Transportation - March

13 Test plan Example primary component cell : Size D Thomas Dittrich (Tadiran) - New Hybrid Battery Testing and Transportation - March

14 Test plan - Example Hybrid Battery: D (primary) (rechargeable) Thomas Dittrich (Tadiran) - New Hybrid Battery Testing and Transportation - March

15 Test plan - Example Hybrid Battery: D (primary) (rechargeable) Thomas Dittrich (Tadiran) - New Hybrid Battery Testing and Transportation - March

16 Proposal T.7 Over charge  A Hybrid Battery is a primary battery containing a small amount of rechargeable component cells  Therefore it cannot be tested according to Overcharge test T.7  However, the equivalent test result can be obtained by the following test procedure: : Conduction of the Overcharge test T.7 with the rechargeable component cells. Assessment of the battery circuit diagram, based on which overcharge is prevented by intrinsic voltage limitation. Thomas Dittrich (Tadiran) - New Hybrid Battery Testing and Transportation - March

17 Upper limits for Lithium Content of Hybrid Batteries  Upper limit for the primary cells in a Hybrid Battery: 12 g Lithium content per primary component cell  Upper limit for the rechargeable cells in a Hybrid Battery : 0.2 g Lithium equivalent content per rechargeable component cell  Upper limit for the Primary part in a Hybrid Battery: 500 g Lithium content per Battery  Upper limit for the Secondary part in a Hybrid Battery : 20 g Lithium equivalent content per Battery. Thomas Dittrich (Tadiran) - New Hybrid Battery Testing and Transportation - March

18 Hybrid Batteries Contained in Equipment  Equipment containing Hybrid Batteries  Equipment containing both Lithium Metal Cells/Batteries AND Lithium Ion Cells/Batteries  Current understanding is that it can be transported under UN 3091  IS THERE A NEED FOR DISCUSSION / REGULATION? Thomas Dittrich (Tadiran) - New Hybrid Battery Testing and Transportation - March


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