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Chapter 39 The Stalemated Seventies. I. Sources of Stagnation A)Decrease in productivity -jobs without skills for women and teens -shift from manufacturing.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 39 The Stalemated Seventies. I. Sources of Stagnation A)Decrease in productivity -jobs without skills for women and teens -shift from manufacturing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 39 The Stalemated Seventies

2 I. Sources of Stagnation A)Decrease in productivity -jobs without skills for women and teens -shift from manufacturing to services -inflation -gov’t deficit -competition from Germany and Japan (before-no competition!)

3 II. Nixon Vietnamizes the War A)Nixon-strong foreign policy B)Vietnamization -gradually pull 540k troops -provide S. Vietnamese funding and training to wager own war C) Nixon Doctrine-Asians fight own war without large body of American troops D) Protestors-Boston Common and White House to Nixon’s gradual removal of troops E) Silent Majority-silent Americans who preferred war

4 F) Increasingly unpopular -economically disadvantaged fighting -low morale with soldiers G) My Lai Massacre -American troops murdered innocent women in children

5 III. Cambodianizing the Vietnam War A)Attack Viet Cong’s sanctuaries in Cambodia B)Youth Violence in Response 1) Kent State-rocking throwing, window smashing and arson -National Guard fired killing 4 C) Doves vs. Hawks deepened with invasion of Cambodia -Senate-reduce blank check -26 th Amendment-voting is 18 D) Pentagon Papers-deceptions of Kennedy and Johnson to provoke Vietnamese

6 IV. Nixon’s Détente with Beijing and Moscow A)China and USSR disagreed on Marxist policies B)Nixon and his national security advisor, Henry Kissinger, play both powers for an exit strategy of Vietnam C)Nixon in China-1972 -normalizing China -recognizing one China (not Taiwan!) D) Nixon to Moscow -sell foodstuffs (grains) -ABM (Anti-ballistic missile) Treaty -SALT=Strategic Arms Limitation Talks -freeze amount of long range nuclear missiles -MIRV-multiple independently targeted reentry vehicles

7 E) Nixon not pro communist -ie) Allende=president of Chile -supported Dictator Pinochet after

8 V. A New Team on the Supreme Bench A)Warren Court-liberal -Griswold v. Connecticut-allowed contraceptives -Miranda Warnings -Engel vs. Vitale-separation of church and state-could not enforce students to pray in public schools B) Nixon-replaced 4-now Burger Court -Roe vs. Wade (1973)-apportion legal

9 VI. Nixon on the Home Front A)Philadelphia Plan-federal contracts had to have hiring quotas for minority subcontractors B)Griggs v. Duke Power Co. -hire minority workers or admit minority students in proportion to population C) Environmental Protection Agency -inspired by Rachel Carson-danger of pesticides -Earth Day-raise awareness -Clean Air Act of 1970 -Endangered Species Act of 1973 -Occupational Safety and Health Administration (1970) -Consumer Product Safety Commission (1972)

10 VII. The Nixon Landside of 1972 A)Southern Strategy =Nixon’s plan on winning south (conservatives on Supreme Court, oppose busing to schools, and soft-pedaling Civil Rights) B) Vietnam—main issue C) Nixon vs. Senator George McGovern who had Eagleton (underwent electroshock therapy) discrediting D) Nixon-peace is at hand (Kissinger) 12 days before election E) Nixon won 520 electoral votes to 17

11 F) North Vietnam invaded DMZ -Nixon-bomb N. Vietnamese cities G) Treaty of Paris-1/23/73-shaky piece -US would pull out -145k N. Vietnamese troops stay in S. Vietnam

12 VIII. The Secret Bombing of Cambodia and the War Powers Act A)Nixon-bombing Cambodia-destroying economy by targeting Vietnamese B)War Powers Act-President had to report to Congress within 48 hours after committing American troops to a foreign conflict

13 IX. The Arab Oil Embargo and the Energy Crisis A)Syria and Egypt-attack Israel to regain lands lost in 6 day war -US sent $2 billion in war materials turning the tide B) Energy Crisis -OPEC-embargo oil to US -limit production -end of era of cheap and abundant energy -Inflation and quadrupled price of oil

14 X. Watergate and the Unmaking of a President A)Watergate-bugging Democratic Party’s headquarters B)Nixon-dirty tricks C)VP Agnew was forced to resign for taking bribes D)Gerald Ford becomes VP E)Smoking Gun Tape -turned into Congress with pressure from Supreme Court -showed Nixon covering it up -Nixon resigned to escape impeachment-1974

15 XI. The First Unelected President A)Gerald Ford -unelected -pardoned Nixon -Helsinki Accords -Soviet boundaries of Eastern Euro Nations -Soviets-more liberal exchanges of people -Human Rights-USSR went against them

16 XII. Defeat in Vietnam A)Ford-plead to Congress for more weopans-in vain B)4/29/1975-S. Vietnam collapses -last Americans helicoptered out -roughly 500k Vietnamese migrate to US to escape persecution -$118 billion -56k dead and 300k wounded -America lost face in world -Economy and military lost prowess

17 XIII. Feminist Victories and Defeats A)Feminist movement rose out of Vietnam protests B)1972-Title IX-no discrimination based on sex in education C)Equal Rights Amendment -equal rights-cannot be denied by sex -died in 1982-3 states shy of passing D) Phyllis Schlafly-ERA went against traditional roles of women -1960-1976-divorce rates tripled

18 XIV. The Seventies in Black and White A)Milliken v. Bradley (74)-desegregation does not go across districts (suburbs-white-still unequal) B)Allan Bakke-reverse discrimination by being denied to medical school -admitted-decision cannot be denied on color alone C) US v. Wheeler (78)-Native American groups are semi-sovereign by Congress alone

19 XV. The Bicentennial Campaign A)Gerald Ford vs. Jimmy Carter (former governor of GA) B) Carter wins 51% of popular vote and 297 to 240 electoral vote C) Jimmy Carter- “I’ll never lie to you.” -Democrat majority in both houses -popular in first few months -not a Washington insider

20 XVI. Carter’s Humanitarian Diplomacy A)Zimbabwe and South Africa diplomacy missions to discuss oppressed blacks B)Camp David Accords -Egypt’s Anwar Sadat and Israel’s Menachem Begin -Egypt-recognize borders -Israel-give up land to Egypt -sign formal treaty within 3 months C) Cuban troops-supported by Soviets---appeared in African nations of Angola, Ethiopia to support revolutionary factions D) Panama Canal—back to Panama in 1999

21 XVII. Economic and Energy Woes A)1980-inflation up 13% -10% of GNP is foreign trade -huge oil bills -Iran rids of American imposed Shah by Muslim fundamentalists who hate America -Iran closes its oil markets -rationed gas consumption B) Malaise speech—Carter notes Americans as materialistic -fires 4 cabinet members -loses touch with American people

22 XVIII. American Affairs and the Iranian Imbroglio A)SALT II-Brezhnev and Carter -limit levels of strategic weapons -not supported by Republicans B) USSR enters Afghanistan -becomes USSR’s Vietnam -US worried about USSR control of Persian Region C) Iranian Hostage Crisis -Iranians capture Americans at American embassy in Tehran -demand return of Shah -Carter-economic sanctions and world pressure -failed rescue mission with malfunctioning machinery killing 8 of would be rescuers

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