Presentation on theme: "THE FORD ADMINISTRATION 1974-1976. CONTEXT: 1974-1980 POLITICAL Watergate Nixon’s resignation Fall of Saigon Election of 1976 Iran, Afghanistan – “FREEZE”"— Presentation transcript:
THE FORD ADMINISTRATION
CONTEXT: POLITICAL Watergate Nixon’s resignation Fall of Saigon Election of 1976 Iran, Afghanistan – “FREEZE” in Cold War OPEC Helsinki Accords ECONOMIC Energy Crisis Double-digit inflation Recession SOCIAL Olympic Boycotts Iran Hostage Crisis Bi-centennial Year
THE UNELECTED PRESIDENT Ford replaces Agnew, then Nixon Chosen by Congress according to 25 th amendment Ford grants complete pardon to Nixon Pardon is very unpopular Ford suffers from bad press Image of a “bumbler”
FORD’s FOREIGN POLICY Helsinki Accords – July 1975 –US/NATO recognize USSR’s satellites/empire –USSR pledges to respect human rights Fall of Saigon – April 1975 –500,000 refugees IMPACT: Ford and Americans lose trust in USSR and Détente b/c USSR fails to respect dissident movement and continue to foment revolution abroad. America “loses face.”
Fall of Saigon – April 29, 1975
Helsinki Accords: Success? Failure?
ELECTION OF 1976 America’s Bicentennial CANDIDATES: Ford for Republicans Carter for Democrats ISSUES: Trust in government RESULT: Narrow victory (51% / 297 to 240) for Carter Carter sweeps the South; 97% of Af.-American vote
CARTER: Carter seen as Washington “Outsider” - Advantage at first, then liability Focus on human rights and diplomacy in foreign policy Idealistic May have been seen as “weak” by Soviets SALT II fails Fails to work with/win over Congress What president does he remind you of most?
CARTER’S HUMANITARIAN DIPLOMACY Response to Helsinki Accords Carter pushes Human Rights Causes rift in State Department over support for less than democratic “allies” W/draws support for Somoza in Nicaragua Negotiates return of Panama Canal
Camp David Accords ( ) Brokered by Carter at Camp David Menachem Begin (Israel) and Anwar Sedat (Egypt) First peace settlement between Israel and an Arab State
IRAN FIASCO Shah deposed by fundamentalist revolution Iran in turmoil Students storm embassy and hold 53 US Diplomats hostage Carter seems stymied Delta Force rescue operation fails 8 servicemen die
Current Pres. of Iran Ahmadinejad was one of the student leaders of the hostage takeover.
AFGHANISTAN Soviets invade to gain access to Middle-East/oil Carter cries foul – boycotts Olympics Creation of “Rapid Deployment Force” US supports muhajediin fighters Becomes Soviet’s “Vietnam”
CARTER’s DOMESTIC WOES OPEC continues to control production Iran crisis further hurts oil production US in double-digit inflation Carter creates Dept. of Energy Carter urges conservation and blames consumerism/over-consumption US begins posting trade deficits Real income falling Fuel shortages becoming commonplace Fires four cabinet members