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VIETNAM or INDOCHINA WAR (s). FRENCH INDOCHINA French colonize parts of Southeast Asia in 1880s, incl. Kingdom of Vietnam French colonize parts of Southeast.

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Presentation on theme: "VIETNAM or INDOCHINA WAR (s). FRENCH INDOCHINA French colonize parts of Southeast Asia in 1880s, incl. Kingdom of Vietnam French colonize parts of Southeast."— Presentation transcript:

1 VIETNAM or INDOCHINA WAR (s)

2 FRENCH INDOCHINA French colonize parts of Southeast Asia in 1880s, incl. Kingdom of Vietnam French colonize parts of Southeast Asia in 1880s, incl. Kingdom of Vietnam When French fall to Nazis and Japanese in World War II, Vietnamese led by Communist Ho Chi Minh begin revolt When French fall to Nazis and Japanese in World War II, Vietnamese led by Communist Ho Chi Minh begin revolt

3 HO CHI MINH Defeats French in 1954 at Battle of Dienbienphu Defeats French in 1954 at Battle of Dienbienphu French, Communists sign Geneva Accords French, Communists sign Geneva Accords

4 GENEVA ACCORDS Laos and Cambodia to become independent. Laos and Cambodia to become independent. Vietnam split into North – under Communist control, and South – non- Communist Vietnam split into North – under Communist control, and South – non- Communist Elections to be held in two years (1956) to decide government for whole country Elections to be held in two years (1956) to decide government for whole country

5 THE OUTCOME Elections are never held US and South Vietnam Fear Communist trickery Ngo Dinh Diem is made President of South Viet- Nam with American backing

6 DOMINO THEORY and COMMITMENTS US pledged through SEATO treaty to defend Thailand, Philippines and South Vietnam. US pledged through SEATO treaty to defend Thailand, Philippines and South Vietnam. Domino Theory – fear that if one country in SE Asia becomes Communist, they all will follow. SE Asia is strategic area. Domino Theory – fear that if one country in SE Asia becomes Communist, they all will follow. SE Asia is strategic area.

7 DIEM Unpopular as president Unpopular as president Authoritarian, aloof from the people Authoritarian, aloof from the people Buddhist protests and “betrayal” by military officers lead to his downfall Buddhist protests and “betrayal” by military officers lead to his downfall

8 DILEMNA! What was US to do about South Vietnam? What was US to do about South Vietnam? Vietcong, backed by North Vietnam and USSR, were making gains in countryside. But there was no viable government.

9 US INVOLVEMENT US backs a series of military governments, begins massive bombing of North Vietnam and begins sending massive numbers of combat troops in 1965.

10 LAOS and CAMBODIA Communist-led uprisings also take place in these two monarchies Communist-led uprisings also take place in these two monarchies Vietcong make great use of the mountainous border with these countries for their supply line from North Vietnam, called the Ho Chi Minh Trail Vietcong make great use of the mountainous border with these countries for their supply line from North Vietnam, called the Ho Chi Minh Trail

11 TET OFFENSIVE Surprise attack by VC and North Vietnamese across South Vietnam during traditional truce period. Surprise attack by VC and North Vietnamese across South Vietnam during traditional truce period. Gives lie to US predictions of Gives lie to US predictions ofspeedyvictory.

12 MY LAI MASSACRE American troops are ordered to destroy a South Vietnamese village and end up massacring 450 inhabitants American troops are ordered to destroy a South Vietnamese village and end up massacring 450 inhabitants Public reaction against war inflamed, but many find it excusable. Public reaction against war inflamed, but many find it excusable.

13 “VIETNAMIZAION” Elected president in 1968, Nixon promises to turn more of fighting over to the South Vietnamese. Elected president in 1968, Nixon promises to turn more of fighting over to the South Vietnamese. However, to support them he continues the bombing campaign on VC supply lines and, in 1970, invades Cambodia However, to support them he continues the bombing campaign on VC supply lines and, in 1970, invades Cambodia

14 PEACE TALKS Begin in 1970 Begin in 1970 Two years spent arguing over the shape of the table Two years spent arguing over the shape of the table Cease-fire signed in January, Cease-fire signed in January, American troops go home. Most prisoners of war are released. American troops go home. Most prisoners of war are released.

15 END OF WAR Communists break cease- fire terms and quickly overwhelm South Vietnamese. Communists break cease- fire terms and quickly overwhelm South Vietnamese. North and South Vietnam are re-unified. Saigon becomes Ho Chi Minh City North and South Vietnam are re-unified. Saigon becomes Ho Chi Minh City Communists also win in Laos and Cambodia- Bloodbath in Cambodia Communists also win in Laos and Cambodia- Bloodbath in Cambodia


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